# Pizza Hut Pi Day Challenge: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series on the 2016 Pizza Hut Pi Day Challenge.

Part 1: Statement of the problem.

Part 2: Using the divisibility rules for 1, 5, 9, 10 to reduce the number of possibilities from 3,628,800 to 40,320.

Part 3: Using the divisibility rule for 2 to reduce the number of possibilities to 576.

Part 4: Using the divisibility rule for 3 to reduce the number of possibilities to 192.

Part 5: Using the divisibility rule for 4 to reduce the number of possibilities to 96.

Part 6: Using the divisibility rule for 8 to reduce the number of possibilities to 24.

Part 7: Reusing the divisibility rule for 3 to reduce the number of possibilities to 10.

Part 8: Dividing by 7 to find the answer.

# Predicate Logic and Popular Culture: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series on using examples from popular culture to illustrate principles of predicate logic. My experiences teaching these ideas to my discrete mathematics students led to my recent publication (John Quintanilla, “Name That Tune: Teaching Predicate Logic with Popular Culture,” MAA Focus, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 27-28, August/September 2016).

Unlike other series that I’ve made, this series didn’t have a natural chronological order. So I’ll list these by concept illustrated from popular logic.

Logical and $\land$:

• Part 1: “You Belong To Me,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 21: “Do You Hear What I Hear,” covered by Whitney Houston
• Part 31: The Godfather (1972)
• Part 45: The Blues Brothers (1980)
• Part 53: “What Does The Fox Say,” by Ylvis
• Part 54: “Billie Jean,” by Michael Jackson
• Part 98: “Call Me Maybe,” by Carly Rae Jepsen.

Logical or $\lor$:

• Part 1: Shawshank Redemption (1994)

Logical negation $\lnot$:

• Part 1: Richard Nixon
• Part 32: “Satisfaction!”, by the Rolling Stones
• Part 39: “We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together,” by Taylor Swift

Logical implication $\Rightarrow$:

• Part 1: Field of Dreams (1989), and also “Roam,” by the B-52s
• Part 2: “Word Crimes,” by Weird Al Yankovic
• Part 7: “I’ll Be There For You,” by The Rembrandts (Theme Song from Friends)
• Part 43: “Kiss,” by Prince
• Part 50: “I’m Still A Guy,” by Brad Paisley
• Part 76: “You’re Never Fully Dressed Without A Smile,” from Annie.
• Part 109: “Dancing in the Dark,” by Bruce Springsteen.
• Part 122: “Keep Yourself Alive,” by Queen.

For all $\forall$:

• Part 3: Casablanca (1942)
• Part 4: A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)
• Part 34: “California Girls,” by The Beach Boys
• Part 37: Fellowship of the Ring, by J. R. R. Tolkien
• Part 49: “Buy Me A Boat,” by Chris Janson
• Part 57: “Let It Go,” by Idina Menzel and from Frozen (2013)
• Part 65: “Stars and Stripes Forever,” by John Philip Sousa.
• Part 68: “Love Yourself,” by Justin Bieber.
• Part 69: “I Will Always Love You,” by Dolly Parton (covered by Whitney Houston).
• Part 74: “Faithfully,” by Journey.
• Part 79: “We’re Not Gonna Take It Anymore,” by Twisted Sister.
• Part 87: “Hungry Heart,” by Bruce Springsteen.
• Part 99: “It’s the End of the World,” by R.E.M.
• Part 100: “Hold the Line,” by Toto.
• Part 101: “Break My Stride,” by Matthew Wilder.
• Part 102: “Try Everything,” by Shakira.
• Part 108: “BO,” by Fifth Harmony.
• Part 113: “Sweet Caroline,” by Neil Diamond.
• Part 114: “You Know Nothing, Jon Snow,” from Game of Thrones.
• Part 118: “The Lazy Song,” by Bruno Mars.
• Part 120: “Cold,” by Crossfade.
• Part 123: “Always on My Mind,” by Willie Nelson.

For all and implication:

• Part 8 and Part 9: “What Makes You Beautiful,” by One Direction
• Part 13: “Safety Dance,” by Men Without Hats
• Part 16: The Fellowship of the Ring, by J. R. R. Tolkien
• Part 24 : “The Chipmunk Song,” by The Chipmunks
• Part 55: The Quiet Man (1952)
• Part 62: “All My Exes Live In Texas,” by George Strait.
• Part 70: “Wannabe,” by the Spice Girls.
• Part 72: “You Shook Me All Night Long,” by AC/DC.
• Part 81: “Ascot Gavotte,” from My Fair Lady
• Part 82: “Sharp Dressed Man,” by ZZ Top.
• Part 86: “I Could Have Danced All Night,” from My Fair Lady.
• Part 95: “Every Breath You Take,” by The Police.
• Part 96: “Only the Lonely,” by Roy Orbison.
• Part 97: “I Still Haven’t Found What I’m Looking For,” by U2.
• Part 105: “Every Rose Has Its Thorn,” by Poison.
• Part 107: “Party in the U.S.A.,” by Miley Cyrus.
• Part 112: “Winners Aren’t Losers,” by Donald J. Trump and Jimmy Kimmel.
• Part 115: “Every Time We Touch,” by Cascada.
• Part 117: “Stronger,” by Kelly Clarkson.

There exists $\exists$:

• Part 10: “Unanswered Prayers,” by Garth Brooks
• Part 15: “Stand by Your Man,” by Tammy Wynette (also from The Blues Brothers)
• Part 36: Hamlet, by William Shakespeare
• Part 57: “Let It Go,” by Idina Menzel and from Frozen (2013)
• Part 94: “Not While I’m Around,” from Sweeney Todd (1979).
• Part 104: “Wild Blue Yonder” (US Air Force)
• Part 106: “No One,” by Alicia Keys.
• Part 116: “Ocean Front Property,” by George Strait.

Existence and uniqueness:

• Part 14: “Girls Just Want To Have Fun,” by Cyndi Lauper
• Part 20: “All I Want for Christmas Is You,” by Mariah Carey
• Part 23: “All I Want for Christmas Is My Two Front Teeth,” covered by The Chipmunks
• Part 29: “You’re The One That I Want,” from Grease
• Part 30: “Only You,” by The Platters
• Part 35: “Hound Dog,” by Elvis Presley
• Part 73: “Dust In The Wind,” by Kansas.
• Part 75: “Happy Together,” by The Turtles.
• Part 77: “All She Wants To Do Is Dance,” by Don Henley.
• Part 90: “All You Need Is Love,” by The Beatles.

DeMorgan’s Laws:

• Part 5: “Never Gonna Give You Up,” by Rick Astley
• Part 28: “We’re Breaking Free,” from High School Musical (2006)

Simple nested predicates:

• Part 6: “Everybody Loves Somebody Sometime,” by Dean Martin
• Part 25: “Every Valley Shall Be Exalted,” from Handel’s Messiah
• Part 33: “Heartache Tonight,” by The Eagles
• Part 38: “Everybody Needs Somebody To Love,” by Wilson Pickett and covered in The Blues Brothers (1980)
• Part 46: “Mean,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 56: “Turn! Turn! Turn!” by The Byrds
• Part 63: P. T. Barnum.
• Part 64: Abraham Lincoln.
• Part 66: “Somewhere,” from West Side Story.
• Part 71: “Hold On,” by Wilson Philips.
• Part 80: Liverpool FC.
• Part 84: “If You Leave,” by OMD.
• Part 103: “The Caisson Song” (US Army).
• Part 111: “Always Something There To Remind Me,” by Naked Eyes.
• Part 121: “All the Right Moves,” by OneRepublic.

Maximum or minimum of a function:

• Part 12: “For the First Time in Forever,” by Kristen Bell and Idina Menzel and from Frozen (2013)
• Part 19: “Tennessee Christmas,” by Amy Grant
• Part 22: “The Most Wonderful Time of the Year,” by Andy Williams
• Part 48: “I Got The Boy,” by Jana Kramer
• Part 60: “I Loved Her First,” by Heartland
• Part 92: “Anything You Can Do,” from Annie Get Your Gun.
• Part 119: “Uptown Girl,” by Billy Joel.

Somewhat complicated examples:

• Part 11 : “Friends in Low Places,” by Garth Brooks
• Part 27 : “There is a Castle on a Cloud,” from Les Miserables
• Part 41: Winston Churchill
• Part 44: Casablanca (1942)
• Part 51: “Everybody Wants to Rule the World,” by Tears For Fears
• Part 58: “Fifteen,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 59: “We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 61: “Style,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 67: “When I Think Of You,” by Janet Jackson.
• Part 78: “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now,” by Starship.
• Part 89: “No One Is Alone,” from Into The Woods.
• Part 110: “Everybody Loves My Baby,” by Louis Armstrong.

Fairly complicated examples:

• Part 17 : Richard Nixon
• Part 47: “Homegrown,” by Zac Brown Band
• Part 52: “If Ever You’re In My Arms Again,” by Peabo Bryson
• Part 83: “Something Good,” from The Sound of Music.
• Part 85: “Joy To The World,” by Three Dog Night.
• Part 88: “Like A Rolling Stone,” by Bob Dylan.
• Part 91: “Into the Fire,” from The Scarlet Pimpernel.

Really complicated examples:

• Part 18: “Sleigh Ride,” covered by Pentatonix
• Part 26: “All the Gold in California,” by the Gatlin Brothers
• Part 40: “One of These Things Is Not Like the Others,” from Sesame Street
• Part 42: “Take It Easy,” by The Eagles

# My Mathematical Magic Show: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The links below show the mathematical magic show that I’ll perform from time to time.

Part 1: Introduction.

Part 2a, Part 2b, and Part 2c: The 1089 trick.

Part 4a: Part 4b, Part 4c, and Part 4d: A trick using binary numbers.

Part 5a, Part 5b, Part 5c, and Part 5d: A trick using the rule for checking if a number is a multiple of 9.

Part 7: The Fitch-Cheney card trick, which is perhaps the slickest mathematical card trick ever devised.

Part 8a, Part 8b, and Part 8c: A trick using Pascal’s triangle.

Part 9: Mentally computing $n$ given $n^5$ if $10 \le n \le 99$.

Part 6: The Grand Finale.

And, for the sake of completeness, here’s a recent picture of me just before I performed an abbreviated version of this show for UNT’s Preview Day for high school students thinking about enrolling at my university.

# What I Learned by Reading “Gamma: Exploring Euler’s Constant” by Julian Havil: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post.

When I was researching for my series of posts on conditional convergence, especially examples related to the constant $\gamma$, the reference Gamma: Exploring Euler’s Constant by Julian Havil kept popping up. Finally, I decided to splurge for the book, expecting a decent popular account of this number. After all, I’m a professional mathematician, and I took a graduate level class in analytic number theory. In short, I don’t expect to learn a whole lot when reading a popular science book other than perhaps some new pedagogical insights.

Boy, was I wrong. As I turned every page, it seemed I hit a new factoid that I had not known before.

In this series, I’d like to compile some of my favorites along with the page numbers in the book — while giving the book a very high recommendation.

Part 1: The smallest value of $n$ so that $1 + \frac{1}{2} + \dots + \frac{1}{n} > 100$ (page 23).

Part 2: Except for a couple select values of $m, the sum $\frac{1}{m} + \frac{1}{m+1} + \dots + \frac{1}{n}$ is never an integer (pages 24-25).

Part 3: The sum of the reciprocals of the twin primes converges (page 30).

Part 4: Euler somehow calculated $\zeta(26)$ without a calculator (page 41).

Part 5: The integral called the Sophomore’s Dream (page 44).

Part 6: St. Augustine’s thoughts on mathematicians — in context, astrologers (page 65).

Part 7: The probability that two randomly selected integers have no common factors is $6/\pi^2$ (page 68).

Part 8: The series for quickly computing $\gamma$ to high precision (page 89).

Part 9: An observation about the formulas for $1^k + 2^k + \dots + n^k$ (page 81).

Part 10: A lower bound for the gap between successive primes (page 115).

Part 11: Two generalizations of $\gamma$ (page 117).

Part 12: Relating the harmonic series to meteorological records (page 125).

Part 13: The crossing-the-desert problem (page 127).

Part 14: The worm-on-a-rope problem (page 133).

Part 15: An amazingly nasty formula for the $n$th prime number (page 168).

Part 16: A heuristic argument for the form of the prime number theorem (page 172).

Part 17: Oops.

Part 18: The Riemann Hypothesis can be stated in a form that can be understood by high school students (page 207).

# Lessons from teaching gifted elementary school students: Index (updated)

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collect past series of posts into a single, easy-to-reference post. The following posts formed my series on various lessons I’ve learned while trying to answer the questions posed by gifted elementary school students. (This is updated from my previous index.)

Part 1: A surprising pattern in some consecutive perfect squares.

Part 2: Calculating 2 to a very large exponent.

Part 3a: Calculating 2 to an even larger exponent.

Part 3b: An analysis of just how large this number actually is.

Part 4a: The chance of winning at BINGO in only four turns.

Part 4b: Pedagogical thoughts on one step of the calculation.

Part 4c: A complicated follow-up question.

Part 5a: Exponentiation is multiplication as multiplication is to addition. So, multiplication is to addition as addition is to what? (I offered the answer of incrementation, but it was rejected: addition requires two inputs, while incrementation only requires one.)

Part 5b: Why there is no binary operation that completes the above analogy.

Part 5c: Knuth’s up-arrow notation for writing very big numbers.

Part 5d: Graham’s number, reputed to be the largest number ever to appear in a mathematical proof.

Part 6a: Calculating $(255/256)^x$.

Part 6b: Solving $(255/256)^x = 1/2$ without a calculator.

Part 7a: Estimating the size of a 1000-pound hailstone.

Part 7b: Estimating the size a 1000-pound hailstone.

Part 8a: Statement of an usually triangle summing problem.

Part 8b: Solution using binomial coefficients.

Part 8c: Rearranging the series.

Part 8d: Reindexing to further rearrange the series.

Part 8e: Rewriting using binomial coefficients again.

Part 8f: Finally obtaining the numerical answer.

Part 8g: Extracting the square root of the answer by hand.

# A Natural Function with Discontinuities: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series on a natural function that nevertheless has discontinuities.

Part 1: Introduction

Part 2: Derivation of this piecewise function, beginning.

Part 3: Derivation of the piecewise function, ending.

# Combinatorics and Jason’s Deli: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series on an advertisement that I saw in Jason’s Deli.

Part 2: Correct calculation of the number of salad bar combinations.

Part 3: Incorrect calculation of how long it would take to eat this many combinations.

# Another Poorly Written Word Problem: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series poorly written word problem, taken directly from textbooks and other materials from textbook publishers.

Part 2: Estimation and rounding.

Part 3: Probability.

Part 4: Subtraction and estimation.

Part 5: Algebra and inequality.

Part 6: Domain and range of a function.

Part 7: Algebra and inequality.

Part 8: Algebra and inequality.

Part 9: Geometric series.

# Predicate Logic and Popular Culture: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series on using examples from popular culture to illustrate principles of predicate logic. My experiences teaching these ideas to my discrete mathematics students led to my recent publication (John Quintanilla, “Name That Tune: Teaching Predicate Logic with Popular Culture,” MAA Focus, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp. 27-28, August/September 2016).

Unlike other series that I’ve made, this series didn’t have a natural chronological order. So I’ll list these by concept illustrated from popular logic.

Logical and $\land$:

• Part 1: “You Belong To Me,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 21: “Do You Hear What I Hear,” covered by Whitney Houston
• Part 31: The Godfather (1972)
• Part 45: The Blues Brothers (1980)
• Part 53: “What Does The Fox Say,” by Ylvis
• Part 54: “Billie Jean,” by Michael Jackson

Logical or $\lor$:

• Part 1: Shawshank Redemption (1994)

Logical negation $\lnot$:

• Part 1: Richard Nixon
• Part 32: “Satisfaction!”, by the Rolling Stones
• Part 39: “We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together,” by Taylor Swift

Logical implication $\Rightarrow$:

• Part 1: Field of Dreams (1989), and also “Roam,” by the B-52s
• Part 2: “Word Crimes,” by Weird Al Yankovic
• Part 7: “I’ll Be There For You,” by The Rembrandts (Theme Song from Friends)
• Part 43: “Kiss,” by Prince
• Part 50: “I’m Still A Guy,” by Brad Paisley
• Part 76: “You’re Never Fully Dressed Without A Smile,” from Annie.

For all $\forall$:

• Part 3: Casablanca (1942)
• Part 4: A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)
• Part 34: “California Girls,” by The Beach Boys
• Part 37: Fellowship of the Ring, by J. R. R. Tolkien
• Part 49: “Buy Me A Boat,” by Chris Janson
• Part 57: “Let It Go,” by Idina Menzel and from Frozen (2013)
• Part 65: “Stars and Stripes Forever,” by John Philip Sousa.
• Part 68: “Love Yourself,” by Justin Bieber.
• Part 69: “I Will Always Love You,” by Whitney Houston.
• Part 74: “Faithfully,” by Journey.
• Part 79: “We’re Not Gonna Take It Anymore,” by Twisted Sister.
• Part 87: “Hungry Heart,” by Bruce Springsteen.

For all and implication:

• Part 8 and Part 9: “What Makes You Beautiful,” by One Direction
• Part 13: “Safety Dance,” by Men Without Hats
• Part 16: The Fellowship of the Ring, by J. R. R. Tolkien
• Part 24 : “The Chipmunk Song,” by The Chipmunks
• Part 55: The Quiet Man (1952)
• Part 62: “All My Exes Live In Texas,” by George Strait.
• Part 70: “Wannabe,” by the Spice Girls.
• Part 72: “You Shook Me All Night Long,” by AC/DC.
• Part 81: “Ascot Gavotte,” from My Fair Lady
• Part 82: “Sharp Dressed Man,” by ZZ Top.
• Part 86: “I Could Have Danced All Night,” from My Fair Lady.

There exists $\exists$:

• Part 10: “Unanswered Prayers,” by Garth Brooks
• Part 15: “Stand by Your Man,” by Tammy Wynette (also from The Blues Brothers)
• Part 36: Hamlet, by William Shakespeare
• Part 57: “Let It Go,” by Idina Menzel and from Frozen (2013)

Existence and uniqueness:

• Part 14: “Girls Just Want To Have Fun,” by Cyndi Lauper
• Part 20: “All I Want for Christmas Is You,” by Mariah Carey
• Part 23: “All I Want for Christmas Is My Two Front Teeth,” covered by The Chipmunks
• Part 29: “You’re The One That I Want,” from Grease
• Part 30: “Only You,” by The Platters
• Part 35: “Hound Dog,” by Elvis Presley
• Part 73: “Dust In The Wind,” by Kansas.
• Part 75: “Happy Together,” by The Turtles.
• Part 77: “All She Wants To Do Is Dance,” by Don Henley.
• Part 90: “All You Need Is Love,” by The Beatles.

DeMorgan’s Laws:

• Part 5: “Never Gonna Give You Up,” by Rick Astley
• Part 28: “We’re Breaking Free,” from High School Musical (2006)

Simple nested predicates:

• Part 6: “Everybody Loves Somebody Sometime,” by Dean Martin
• Part 25: “Every Valley Shall Be Exalted,” from Handel’s Messiah
• Part 33: “Heartache Tonight,” by The Eagles
• Part 38: “Everybody Needs Somebody To Love,” by Wilson Pickett and covered in The Blues Brothers (1980)
• Part 46: “Mean,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 56: “Turn! Turn! Turn!” by The Byrds
• Part 63: P. T. Barnum.
• Part 64: Abraham Lincoln.
• Part 66: “Somewhere,” from West Side Story.
• Part 71: “Hold On,” by Wilson Philips.
• Part 80: Liverpool FC.
• Part 84: “If You Leave,” by OMD.

Maximum or minimum of a function:

• Part 12: “For the First Time in Forever,” by Kristen Bell and Idina Menzel and from Frozen (2013)
• Part 19: “Tennessee Christmas,” by Amy Grant
• Part 22: “The Most Wonderful Time of the Year,” by Andy Williams
• Part 48: “I Got The Boy,” by Jana Kramer
• Part 60: “I Loved Her First,” by Heartland
• Part 92: “Anything You Can Do,” from Annie Get Your Gun.

Somewhat complicated examples:

• Part 11 : “Friends in Low Places,” by Garth Brooks
• Part 27 : “There is a Castle on a Cloud,” from Les Miserables
• Part 41: Winston Churchill
• Part 44: Casablanca (1942)
• Part 51: “Everybody Wants to Rule the World,” by Tears For Fears
• Part 58: “Fifteen,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 59: “We Are Never Ever Getting Back Together,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 61: “Style,” by Taylor Swift
• Part 67: “When I Think Of You,” by Janet Jackson.
• Part 78: “Nothing’s Gonna Stop Us Now,” by Starship.
• Part 89: “No One Is Alone,” from Into The Woods.

Fairly complicated examples:

• Part 17 : Richard Nixon
• Part 47: “Homegrown,” by Zac Brown Band
• Part 52: “If Ever You’re In My Arms Again,” by Peabo Bryson
• Part 83: “Something Good,” from The Sound of Music.
• Part 85: “Joy To The World,” by Three Dog Night.
• Part 88: “Like A Rolling Stone,” by Bob Dylan.
• Part 91: “Into the Fire,” from The Scarlet Pimpernel.

Really complicated examples:

• Part 18: “Sleigh Ride,” covered by Pentatonix
• Part 26: “All the Gold in California,” by the Gatlin Brothers
• Part 40: “One of These Things Is Not Like the Others,” from Sesame Street
• Part 42: “Take It Easy,” by The Eagles

# Correlation and Causation: Index

I’m using the Twelve Days of Christmas (and perhaps a few extra days besides) to do something that I should have done a long time ago: collect past series of posts into a single, easy-to-reference post. The following posts formed my series on data sets that (hopefully) persuade students that correlation is not the same as causation.

Part 1: Piracy and global warming. Also, usage of Internet Explorer and murder.

Part 2: An xkcd comic.

Part 3: STEM spending and suicide. Consumption of margarine and divorce. Consumption of mozzarella and earning a doctorate. Marriage rates and deaths by drowning.

Part 4: Donna the Deer Lady.