Source: https://www.facebook.com/Tysonism/photos/a.313776598684093/1921522124576191/?type=3&theater

## All posts in category **Precalculus**

# Fibonacci joke

*Posted by John Quintanilla on March 1, 2019*

https://meangreenmath.com/2019/03/01/fibonacci-joke/

# Cow-culus

*Posted by John Quintanilla on February 25, 2019*

https://meangreenmath.com/2019/02/25/cow-culus/

# Matrix Jokes

A lot more Matrix jokes can be found at https://mathwithbaddrawings.com/2018/03/07/matrix-jokes/

*Posted by John Quintanilla on February 1, 2019*

https://meangreenmath.com/2019/02/01/matrix-jokes/

# Engaging students: Arithmetic sequences

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for *engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Danielle Pope. Her topic, from Precalculus: arithmetic sequences.

How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in mathematics or science?

In the future, the topic of arithmetic sequences will be built upon by introducing another sequence, the geometric sequence. A geometric sequence is just a sequence of multiples instead of increasing by a constant. The next topic introduced will be finding the sum of a sequence of numbers. This will be introduced as a series. The summation symbol will also be introduced to kids and they will learn that new notation. Summations will bring along many formulas for finding the leading coefficient and will show up later in Calculus 2 classes when talking about convergence and divergence of series. Another one of the things that kids will always be doing with sequences and series is finding the general form of a given sequence or series. Through school, this idea will never change the sequence and series will just get harder to identify.

What interesting things can you say about the people who contributed to the discovery and/or the development of this topic? (You might want to consult Math Through The Ages.)

An arithmetic sequence is a set of numbers that have a constant difference between each term. One of the main people that come up when researching these sequences is Carl Friedrich Gauss. Many math-loving people know him as the “Prince of mathematicians”. He is famous for coming up with the equations to solve the sum of an arithmetic sequence. This comes as no surprise that he came up with this formula. The surprising thing about this realization is that he made it at an age young enough to still be in grade school. Stories say that Gauss was asked to solve for the sum on the board in grade school and used the formula of M ( M + 1 ) / 2 to solve for the correct answer. This just goes to show that anyone can, in fact, contribute to the greater good of mathematics at any age.

How have different cultures throughout time used this topic in their society?

One of the first civilizations that utilized sequences was the Egyptians. They used the sequence of multiples of 2 to do their multiplication. The basic sequence is 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, … and we are trying to solve 24 x 13 with the process pictured below.

The process behind this is to write the multiple of 2 sequences down the left side of the paper until you reach the largest multiple of 2 without going over the second number being multiplied, in this case, 13. Once that is done set the first term on the right side equal to the first number being multiplied, in this case, 24. Next, multiply the right side by 4 until you get the same amount of terms on the left side. Lastly find the sum of numbers on the left that add to 13, which are 1, 4, and 8. Add the corresponding multiples from the side, 24 + 96 + 192 = 312. The right side sum of the corresponding numbers checked on the left gives the product of the original problem, i.e. 312. This trick is cool to show just on its own but it’s also cool because it uses something as simple as a specific list of numbers aka a sequence of numbers.

References

http://www.softschools.com/facts/scientists/carl_friedrich_gauss_facts/827/

https://rabungapalgebraiii.wikispaces.com/Arithmetic+Sequences+and+Series

http://www.math.wichita.edu/MathCircle/docs/egyptian_arithmetic.pdf

*Posted by John Quintanilla on January 14, 2019*

https://meangreenmath.com/2019/01/14/engaging-students-arithmetic-sequences-3/

# Engaging students: Introducing the number e

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for *engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Deanna Cravens. Her topic, from Precalculus: introducing the number .

How was this topic adopted by the mathematical community?

The number e is a relatively newer irrational number if compared to pi. However, it first made its appearance very subtly in 1618. Napier was working on a table of natural logarithms, however it was not noted that the base was e. There were a few other appearances of e but mathematicians had not truly made a connection to it. Eventually in 1683, Jacob Bernoulli was looking at a business application dealing with continuously compounded interest and recognized that the log function and the exponential function were inverses. In 1690, a letter was written by Leibniz and e officially had a name, except it was called ‘b’ at the time. As it comes to no surprise, Euler had his hand in discovering e. He published* Introductio in Analysin infinitorum* in 1748 where he showed that e is the limit of . Now Euler did not explicitly prove that e is irrational, however most people accepted it at that point, but it was indeed later proven.

How could you as a teacher create an activity or project that involves your topic?

Where does the number e come from? Well, the answer is a business application dealing with continuously compounded interest. However, students in a pre-calculus class can easily discover the number e without having to use the calculus behind it. Simply give students this short activity at the beginning of class.

One of the good things about this activity is that it gives a brief snippet of the history of e before students begin to calculate it. Then, students can easily use a calculator and plug in the listed values in the table into the equation . As the numbers get increasingly large, students will notice that they will all appear to be getting closer to 2.718… which is now known as the number e. As a teacher it is important to note that e is like pi, it is an irrational number that goes on forever and doesn’t have any sort of repeating pattern, yet it is extremely important in mathematics.

How can technology (YouTube, Khan Academy [khanacademy.org], Vi Hart, Geometers Sketchpad, graphing calculators, etc.) be used to effectively engage students with this topic?

This video would be excellent to show students who are asking, “why is e so important or where does it come from?” The video starts out by stating what e is approximately equal to. Then it gives a brief history about e and talks about compounded interest. It does a great job at explaining compounded interest. It is executed in a way where pre-calculus students can easily understand the concept. It also uses good visual cues to show how it would work. Next it lists several applications of e. These applications include: statistics through the normal curve, biology by modeling population growth, and physics by the exponential decay of a radioactive material. Overall, it does a great job showing the importance of e in real world applications. Thus, showing the importance of e to a pre-calculus students.

References:

1. http://www.classzone.com/eservices/home/pdf/student/LA208CAD.pdf

2. http://www-history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/HistTopics/e.html

3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R0oUeLQIbIk

*Posted by John Quintanilla on January 11, 2019*

https://meangreenmath.com/2019/01/11/engaging-students-introducing-the-number-e-5/

# Engaging students: Synthetic Division

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for *engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Deetria Bowser. Her topic, from Precalculus: synthetic division.

How can technology (YouTube, Khan Academy [khanacademy.org], Vi Hart, Geometers Sketchpad, graphing calculators, etc.) be used to effectively engage students with this topic? Note: It’s not enough to say “such-and-such is a great website”; you need to explain in some detail why it’s a great website.

It is tough to find websites or technology that help with synthetic division, due to the fact that most websites consists of a long list of instruction, which is not engaging. One website that does seem helpful to a student learning synthetic division is: http://emathlab.com. Under the Algebra tab one can select the option for polynomial functions, then synthetic division. Once selected, a synthetic division activity will pop up. In this activity the student is given a polynomial (of third degree most of the time) divided by a degree one polynomial. The student is then expected to correctly fill the cells with the correct numbers for synthetic division. If they do not get the correct number, the cell turns red and they have to keep trying until they get the answer correct. This activity will be beneficial to students because they will be able to get a feel on the correct placement of numbers when using synthetic division. Additionally, this tool will help them realize what to do when they get polynomials, such as . Finally this online tool will allow the students to evaluate themselves.

How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in mathematics or science?

The idea of synthetic division is used to find the zeros of a function. One may need to find zeros of a function in a variety of mathematics and science courses. For example, in physics, one may need to find the roots of a trajectory equation. To find said roots, one could use synthetic division. Also an example of finding roots could be used to help in computer programming. On math.stackexchange.com a programming student presents the following problem: “I am currently programming a simulation for a pinball game and want to calculate the time when the ball hits a circle (if they collide at some point). For the calculation part, I’m adding the radius of the ball to the radius of the circle, so that i only have to check if the midpoint of the ball collides with the circle. Of course, the circle is displayed with it’s original radius.

Now for the ball’s (midpoint) trajectory i’ve got these two equations who define the movement of the ball on the x- and y-axis (depending on the gravitational acceleration):

,

with = starting point of the ball, = initial velocity, = gravitational acceleration and = time.

To check for collision, I took these two equations and put them into the equation of a circle. Once multiplied out the student got something of the form: . If the coefficients are rational numbers, then he will be able to use synthetic division to find all of the roots, and successfully create his game.

How does this topic extend what your students should have learned in previous courses?

In previous courses, students are taught to find zeros by either graphing, guessing and plugging in a number for x and hoping that the result is zero, or using long division. Synthetic division provides a more systematic way of finding zero’s than just guessing, and can prove to be quicker than graphing and using long division. Additionally, synthetic division can expand on the idea of showing something is not a factor. For instance, when one tries to synthetically divide the polynomial by one will get a remainder of 7. This is another way of proving that is not a factor of . Also, one now knows what the polynomial is when . Synthetic division, extends the idea of finding factors and non-factors of polynomials, as well as solutions to polynomials at a specific .

References

https://math.stackexchange.com/questions/1462858/how-to-find-the-zeros-of-a-fourth-degree-polynomial-without-integer-coefficient

http://emathlab.com/Algebra/PolyFunctions/SyntheticDiv.php

*Posted by John Quintanilla on January 7, 2019*

https://meangreenmath.com/2019/01/07/engaging-students-synthetic-division-3/

# Engaging students: Computing the composition of two functions

*engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

This student submission again comes from my former student Alexandria Johnson. Her topic, from Algebra II/Precalculus: computing the composition of two functions.

The following link is to a worksheet over composition of functions. The worksheet allows students to explore composition of functions without outright telling them what composition of functions is. Instead, the students are working on real world problems about shopping in a store that is having a 20% sale with mystery coupons. In the worksheet, students explore whether or not it matters which discount is applied first and the equations that go along with each scenario. This worksheet is interesting because it approaches composition of functions in an explorative way and it is using a real-world situation students in high school may find relatable, which can help hook students that are math-phobic.

https://betterlesson.com/community/document/1326462/going-shopping-student-materials-docx

Computing the composition of two functions requires prior knowledge of basic operations and combining like terms. This topic will expand upon their knowledge of basic operations by applying them to functions. Students will be able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide functions. Students should be able to use the distribution property; this is important when students are writing (fog)(x) and (gof)(x). During this topic, students should be able to expand upon their knowledge of creating functions from real world problems, which can be seen in the worksheet from the link above.

Musical composition is a way this topic can appear in high culture. Musical composition is the process of combining notes, chords, and melodies in a particular way. Arranging the notes, chords, or melodies in different ways can change the composition. Function composition is the combining of different functions f(x) and g(x) in different ways like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Order usually matters in function composition just like in musical composition. If you have several band students, or musically inclined students, this would be a good hook to grab students interest.

Work cited

https://betterlesson.com/community/document/1326462/going-shopping-student-materials-docx

*Posted by John Quintanilla on December 31, 2018*

https://meangreenmath.com/2018/12/31/engaging-students-computing-the-composition-of-two-functions/

# Engaging students: Using a recursively defined sequence

*engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

This student submission comes from my former student Austin DeLoach. His topic, from Precalculus: using a recursively defined sequence.

How could you as a teacher create an activity or project that involves your topic?

One activity that would be interesting to introduce recursion would be Fibonacci’s rabbit problem. In his book, Liber Abaci, Fibonacci introduced a problem where you start with one young pair of rabbits and try to find out how many rabbits you would have after a year. Every month, a grown pair of rabbits can give birth to a new pair, and it only takes one month for a young pair to grow up and be able to reproduce on their own, and the rabbits also never die. This is one of the most popular recursive sequences (the Fibonacci sequence), and, by itself, can be solved without a prior knowledge of recursion, but is a very good way to introduce the idea once the students begin to analyze the pattern of how many pairs of rabbits there are after each month. This problem is laid out in this video, https://youtu.be/sjQlW6cH3Ko but it is not necessary to show the video to introduce the problem.

How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in mathematics or science?

One major place that a solid grasp of recursion can be used is in computer programming courses. Although not everyone takes these, they are becoming increasingly popular and the field is not likely to shrink any time soon. In programming, there are certain things that can either only be written recursively (as opposed to explicitly) or at least ones that are simpler to write and understand with recursion than with an explicit algorithm. There are also times, depending on the language and content, that a recursive function can be more efficient. Because of this, an understanding of recursion is becoming increasingly important for more people, and the ability to write and understand how it works is practically becoming necessary. So, even though not every student will go on to take computer science, many will, and the basic idea is still important to understand.

How can technology be used to effectively engage students with this topic?

There is a series of Khan Academy videos on recursively defined sequences online. The first one is https://youtu.be/lBtb30SjU2Q and it shows how to read and understand what the basic frame for recursion is. Although Khan Academy videos are not always the most engaging for all students, they do work for many because of their consistent structure. This video in particular is about recursive formulas for arithmetic sequences. Without mentioning the vocabulary yet, the video does introduce the idea of a base case and the method for finding subsequent values. The video both shows how to look at a list of values and determine the recursive definition, as well as how to understand the recursive definition if that is what you are given. For a three minute video, it does a very good job of introducing important topics for recursive series and explaining the basic ideas so that students have a framework to build on later when more complex recursively defined sequences are introduced.

References:

1. https://youtu.be/sjQlW6cH3Ko

2. https://youtu.be/lBtb30SjU2Q

3. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/recursive-functions/

*Posted by John Quintanilla on December 28, 2018*

https://meangreenmath.com/2018/12/28/engaging-students-using-a-recursively-defined-sequence/

# Engaging students: Finding the focus and directrix of a parabola

*engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

This student submission comes from my former student Brittnee Lein. Her topic, from Precalculus: finding the focus and directrix of a parabola.

What are the contributions of various cultures to this topic?

Parabolas (as we know them) were first written about in Apollonius’s Conics. Apollonius stated that parabolas were the result of a plane cutting a double right circular cone at an angle parallel to the vertical angle (α). So, what does that actually mean?

Well, if we take a vertical line and intersect it with a straight line at a fixed point, and then rotate that straight line around the fixed point we form the shape below:

If the plane slices the cone at the angle β and β=α, a parabola is formed. This is still how we define parabolas today although you may not think about it that way. When you think of a parabola, you think of the equation . This equation is derived using the focus and the directrix. This video shows how to do so:

Understanding how the focus and directrix affect the equation of a parabola is crucial to understanding what each word means. According to mathwords.com, “For a given point, called the focus, and a given line not through the focus, called the directrix, a parabola is the locus of points such that the distance to the focus equals the distance to the directrix.” The directrix is a line perpendicular to the axis of symmetry and the focus falls on the line of the axis of symmetry.

How can technology be used to effectively engage students with this topic?

This desmos activity can be used to show students how changing the focus, directrix, and vertex of the parabola affects the graph. https://www.desmos.com/calculator/y90ffrzmco

From this, students can shift values of the vertex and see that the directrix stays constant when the x-value is changed and that the focus remains constant when the y-value is shifted. If students change the value of the focus, they can see how it stretches and contracts the width of the parabola and how the directrix shifts. They can also see that when the focus is negative, the parabola opens downward and the directrix is positive. This website: https://www.intmath.com/plane-analytic-geometry/parabola-interactive.php Is also very helpful in showing the relationships between the focus, directrix and the graph of the parabolas because students can clearly see that the distance between a point on the parabola and the focus and the distance between that same point and the directrix are equal.

What interesting (i.e., uncontrived) word problems using this topic can your students do now?

The website http://www.purplemath.com/modules/parabola4.htm has a lot of great real-world word problems involving finding the focus and the directrix of a parabola. For example, one of the questions is:

(This is a graph I made using desmos to model the situation at hand)

This problem requires a lot of prior knowledge of parabolas and really tests students’ ability to interpret information. From the question alone, the students can find the x-intercepts (-15,0) and (15,0) from the information “the base has a width of 30 feet”. They are also able to infer that the slope of the parabola will be negative because of the shape of an arch. The student must also know how to find the slope of the parabola using the x-intercepts, solving for the equation of the parabola using the x-intercepts and vertex and the equations for finding the focus and directrix from the given information. There are a few problems as involved as this one on the listed website above.

References

http://www.mathwords.com/d/directrix_parabola.htm

https://www.britannica.com/topic/conic-section

https://www.desmos.com/calculator/y90ffrzmco

https://www.intmath.com/plane-analytic-geometry/parabola-interactive.php

http://www.purplemath.com/modules/parabola4.htm

*Posted by John Quintanilla on December 24, 2018*

https://meangreenmath.com/2018/12/24/engaging-students-finding-the-focus-and-directrix-of-a-parabola/

# Engaging students: Finite geometric series

*engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

This student submission comes from my former student Caroline Wick. Her topic, from Precalculus: finite geometric series.

What interesting things can you say about the people who contributed to the discovery and/or the development of this topic?

Finite geometric series was a concept that began over 4500 year ago in ancient Egypt. The Egyptians used this method of finite geometric series mainly to “solve problems dealing with areas of fields and volumes of granaries” but used it for many other uses too, including the pyramids and math problems similar to those one might find on a STAAR test today (see D1, and F1).

There are seven houses; in each house, there are 7 cats; each cat kills seven mice; each mouse has eaten 7 grains of barley; each grain would have produced 7 hekat. What is the sum of all the enumerated things?

Years passed and finite geometric series were not revisited until around 350 BC by the Greeks, namely Archimedes, who came up with a solution to the math problem V=1/3Ah by finite calculations instead of limits. In addition, the idea that a finite sum could be procured from an infinite series was created in what is called the “Achilles Paradox” (D2, F2).

Years after this came Mathematicians in the middle ages, like Richard Swineshead or Nicole Oresme, who aided the world by further refining these series. This eventually led to the renowned Physicist Isaac Newton to “discover the geometric series” after studying mathematician John Wallis’s method of “finding area under a hyperbola” (F1). We can attribute almost all of what we know about geometric series’ to these fine gentlemen above, and they can only attribute what they know from the ancient Egyptians and Greeks.

How has this topic appeared in pop culture?

In 2002, PBS came out with a kids’ TV show called CyberChase, which is an entertaining cartoon about a bunch of kids who get pulled into “Cyber Space” to fight the bad guy, named Hacker, all while discovering and using different mathematical concepts that they learned along the way. Eleven seasons have passed since the shows beginning and it is still going strong, but one episode that still sticks out to me was their version of explaining geometric series to kids. The episode was called “Double trouble” and was the 9th episode of the second season. The specific geometric series involved in the episode was doubling, but the “real world” clip at the end stood out more vividly to me. After losing a chess game, the main character has to decide between paying the winner $5.00 or paying one penny for the first space on a chess board, then two pennies on the second, then four on the third, and continuing to double the previous number for every space on the entire chess board. Since the main character thought pennies were less, he decided on the second option, only realize after that he would have to pay way more than $5.00 in the end. This helped me understand the most basic geometric series when I was a kid, and has stuck with me to this day, so I am certain that it has and can stick in other students’ brains as well.

Here is the clip from the show:

How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in math or science?

The idea of finite geometric series is typically lightly introduced around students’ sophomore year of high school when they take geometry, but it is not really expanded upon/explained until students reach Pre-Calculus. The specific TEKS related to this topic are located under Pre-Calculus in (5), (A)-(E) (Source B1). The concept is brought up again in Math Models with Applications and is used for understanding interest on a balance over a period of time, or “loan amortization.” The ideas can also be used to help understand difference equations that involve heat and cooling over a period of time, and how to predict what the temperature might be in the future, which is a concept that is important in the realm of science too.

When students get to college, finite geometric series are expanded upon even more when they take Calculus classes, and they will learn how to prove a series is finite using induction when they get to their Discrete Classes and Real Analysis classes. In the business realm, they will have to use it to predict monetary sums regarding interest and possible growth in a company, so likely no matter where a student ends up, s/he will have to use this important mathematical concept everywhere.

References:

D1, F1: http://mste.illinois.edu/courses/ci499sp01/students/ambucher/math306geo.pdf

D2, F2: https://www.britannica.com/topic/Achilles-paradox

B1: http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter111/ch111c.html

*Posted by John Quintanilla on December 21, 2018*

https://meangreenmath.com/2018/12/21/engaging-students-finite-geometric-series/