Vertical line test

Source: https://scontent-dfw5-1.xx.fbcdn.net/v/t1.0-9/44665774_2388027201214092_5864075778743861248_n.jpg?_nc_cat=100&_nc_ht=scontent-dfw5-1.xx&oh=ee5e18af1ccda3f69c03ed9bdc35a280&oe=5CA63AEC

Fibonacci joke

Source: https://www.facebook.com/Tysonism/photos/a.313776598684093/1921522124576191/?type=3&theater

Cow-culus

Source: https://www.facebook.com/PunsOnly/photos/a.441764155928376/1469094213195360/?type=3&theater

Powers Great and Small

I enjoyed this reflective piece from Math with Bad Drawings about determining whether a^b or b^a is larger. The final answer, involving the number e, was a complete surprise to me.

Short story: e is the unique number so that e^x > x^e for all positive x.

Powers Great and Small

Matrix Jokes

A lot more Matrix jokes can be found at https://mathwithbaddrawings.com/2018/03/07/matrix-jokes/

Engaging students: Computing the composition of two functions

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission again comes from my former student Alexandria Johnson. Her topic, from Algebra II/Precalculus: computing the composition of two functions.

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The following link is to a worksheet over composition of functions. The worksheet allows students to explore composition of functions without outright telling them what composition of functions is. Instead, the students are working on real world problems about shopping in a store that is having a 20% sale with mystery coupons. In the worksheet, students explore whether or not it matters which discount is applied first and the equations that go along with each scenario. This worksheet is interesting because it approaches composition of functions in an explorative way and it is using a real-world situation students in high school may find relatable, which can help hook students that are math-phobic.

https://betterlesson.com/community/document/1326462/going-shopping-student-materials-docx

 

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Computing the composition of two functions requires prior knowledge of basic operations and combining like terms. This topic will expand upon their knowledge of basic operations by applying them to functions. Students will be able to add, subtract, multiply, and divide functions. Students should be able to use the distribution property; this is important when students are writing (fog)(x) and (gof)(x). During this topic, students should be able to expand upon their knowledge of creating functions from real world problems, which can be seen in the worksheet from the link above. 

green lineMusical composition is a way this topic can appear in high culture. Musical composition is the process of combining notes, chords, and melodies in a particular way. Arranging the notes, chords, or melodies in different ways can change the composition. Function composition is the combining of different functions f(x) and g(x) in different ways like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Order usually matters in function composition just like in musical composition. If you have several band students, or musically inclined students, this would be a good hook to grab students interest.

Work cited
https://betterlesson.com/community/document/1326462/going-shopping-student-materials-docx

 

Engaging students: Using a recursively defined sequence

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Austin DeLoach. His topic, from Precalculus: using a recursively defined sequence.

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How could you as a teacher create an activity or project that involves your topic?
One activity that would be interesting to introduce recursion would be Fibonacci’s rabbit problem. In his book, Liber Abaci, Fibonacci introduced a problem where you start with one young pair of rabbits and try to find out how many rabbits you would have after a year. Every month, a grown pair of rabbits can give birth to a new pair, and it only takes one month for a young pair to grow up and be able to reproduce on their own, and the rabbits also never die. This is one of the most popular recursive sequences (the Fibonacci sequence), and, by itself, can be solved without a prior knowledge of recursion, but is a very good way to introduce the idea once the students begin to analyze the pattern of how many pairs of rabbits there are after each month. This problem is laid out in this video, https://youtu.be/sjQlW6cH3Ko but it is not necessary to show the video to introduce the problem.

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How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in mathematics or science?

One major place that a solid grasp of recursion can be used is in computer programming courses. Although not everyone takes these, they are becoming increasingly popular and the field is not likely to shrink any time soon. In programming, there are certain things that can either only be written recursively (as opposed to explicitly) or at least ones that are simpler to write and understand with recursion than with an explicit algorithm. There are also times, depending on the language and content, that a recursive function can be more efficient. Because of this, an understanding of recursion is becoming increasingly important for more people, and the ability to write and understand how it works is practically becoming necessary. So, even though not every student will go on to take computer science, many will, and the basic idea is still important to understand.

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How can technology be used to effectively engage students with this topic?

There is a series of Khan Academy videos on recursively defined sequences online. The first one is https://youtu.be/lBtb30SjU2Q and it shows how to read and understand what the basic frame for recursion is. Although Khan Academy videos are not always the most engaging for all students, they do work for many because of their consistent structure. This video in particular is about recursive formulas for arithmetic sequences. Without mentioning the vocabulary yet, the video does introduce the idea of a base case and the method for finding subsequent values. The video both shows how to look at a list of values and determine the recursive definition, as well as how to understand the recursive definition if that is what you are given. For a three minute video, it does a very good job of introducing important topics for recursive series and explaining the basic ideas so that students have a framework to build on later when more complex recursively defined sequences are introduced.

References:
1. https://youtu.be/sjQlW6cH3Ko
2. https://youtu.be/lBtb30SjU2Q
3. https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/recursive-functions/

Slightly Incorrect Ugly Mathematical Christmas T-Shirts: Part 2

This was another T-shirt that I found in my search for the perfect ugly mathematical Christmas sweater: https://www.amazon.com/Pascals-Triangle-Math-Christmas-shirt/dp/B07KJS5SM2/I love the artistry of this shirt; the “ornaments” at the corners of the hexagons and the presents under the tree are nice touches.

There’s only one small problem:

\displaystyle {8 \choose 3} = \displaystyle {8 \choose 5} = \displaystyle \frac{8!}{3! \times 5!} = 56.

Oops.

Engaging students: Using Pascal’s triangle

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Rachel Delflache. Her topic, from Precalculus: using Pascal’s triangle.

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How does this topic expand what your students would have learned in previous courses?

In previous courses students have learned how to expand binomials, however after (x+y)^3 the process of expanding the binomial by hand can become tedious. Pascal’s triangle allows for a simpler way to expand binomials. When counting the rows, the top row is row 0, and is equal to one. This correlates to (x+y)^0 =1. Similarly, row 2 is 1 2 1, correlating to (x+y)^2 = 1x^2 + 2xy + 1y^2. The pattern can be used to find any binomial expansion, as long as the correct row is found. The powers in each term also follow a pattern, for example look at (x+y)^4:

1x^4y^0 + 4x^3y^1 + 6x^2y^2 + 4x^1y^3 + 1x^0y^4

In this expansion it can be seen that in the first term of the expansion the first monomial is raised to the original power, and in each term the power of the first monomial decreases by one. Conversely, the second monomial is raised to the power of 0 in the first term of the expansion, and increases by a power of 1 for each subsequent term in the expansion until it is equal to the original power of the binomial.

 

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Sierpinski’s Triangle is triangle that was characterized by Wacław Sieriński in 1915. Sierpinski’s triangle is a fractal of an equilateral triangle which is subdivided recursively. A fractal is a design that is geometrically constructed so that it is similar to itself at different angles. In this particular construction, the original shape is an equilateral triangle which is subdivided into four smaller triangles. Then the middle triangle is whited out. Each black triangle is then subdivided again, and the patter continues as illustrated below.

Sierpinski’s triangle can be created using Pascal’s triangle by shading in the odd numbers and leaving the even numbers white. The following video shows this creation in practice.

 

 

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What are the contributions of various cultures to this topic?

The pattern of Pascal’s triangle can be seen as far back as the 11th century. In the 11th century Pascal’s triangle was studied in both Persia and China by Oman Khayyam and Jia Xian, respectively. While Xian did not study Pascal’s triangle exactly, he did study a triangular representation of coefficients. Xian’s triangle was further studied in 13th century China by Yang Hui, who made it more widely known, which is why Pascal’s triangle is commonly called the Yanghui triangle in China. Pascal’s triangle was later studies in the 17th century by Blaise Pascal, for whom it was named for. While Pascal did not discover the number patter, he did discover many new uses for the pattern which were published in his book Traité du Triangle Arithméthique. It is due to the discovery of these uses that the triangle was named for Pascal.

Reference:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pascal%27s_triangle
http://mathforum.org/workshops/usi/pascal/images/fill.comb.gif
https://www.britannica.com/biography/Blaise-Pascal#toc445406main
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sierpinski_triangle

Happy Fibonacci Day!

Today is 11/23, and 1, 1, 2, 3 are the first four terms of the Fibonacci sequence.

Courtesy Kris McCoy’s Pointless Math Fact of the Day.