In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.
I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).
This student submission again comes from my former student Andrew Wignall. His topic, from Geometry: finding the area of a right triangle.
What interesting (i.e., uncontrived) word problems using this topic can your students do now? (You may find resources such as http://www.spacemath.nasa.gov to be very helpful in this regard; feel free to suggest others.)
To introduce the topic of the area of a right triangle early in a lesson, we can first examine the area of a rectangle, which students should already know how to do.
Say you have a large rectangular garden, 60 feet wide and 10 feet long. Home Depot sells sod (which is a pre-grown grass on a net that can be spread on the ground) at a rate of $3/square foot. What is the area of the garden, in square feet? How much sod should you order? How much would it cost to cover the entire garden with sod?
Instead of having the entire garden covered with sod, suppose you wanted to cover part of the garden with sod and leave the rest as soil for planting flowers. To make it more visually interesting, you decide to set the sod as a triangle? The sod triangle will have a base of 60 feet and a height of 10 feet. What is the area of this triangle in relation to the area of the entire garden? What is the area of this triangle? How much sod should you order? How much would it cost to cover the triangular area with sod?
Through this activity, we can investigate a relationship between right triangles and rectangles, and also the relation of the area of a triangle compared to the angle of a rectangle.
How can technology (YouTube, Khan Academy [khanacademy.org], Vi Hart, Geometers Sketchpad, graphing calculators, etc.) be used to effectively engage students with this topic? Note: It’s not enough to say “such-and-such is a great website”; you need to explain in some detail why it’s a great website
One tool to show the area of a right triangle quickly and easily is the Area Tool on Illuminations (http://illuminations.nctm.org/Activity.aspx?id=3567). With trapezoids, parallelograms, and triangles available, you can click and drag the three vertices of a triangle and instantly see how the area is affected. You can create a quick table and keep a running tally of the base, height, and area, so you can recalculate in front of the class.
Illuminations has a sample lesson plan available online for discovering the area of triangles, and integrates this tool into the plan. If not using this tool as part of a similar plan, we must understand that this tool will not be great for introducing the lesson, as there is no button to lock onto a right triangle. However, there is a button to lock the height, so when you move the vertex opposite the base, you can see how the area does not change, see how the height can be outside the triangle, and extend the formula for the area of a right triangle to the area of any triangle. This tool can then be used in further lessons when discussing the area of parallelograms and trapezoids.
How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in mathematics or science?
Since triangles are one of the most basic shapes, the area of triangles comes up time and time again. Triangles will also be used to find the area of more complex polygons, such as hexagons and irregular polygons, by breaking down complex shapes into simple triangles and quadrelaterals. Trigonometry uses right (and non-right) triangles extensively; in Precalculus, we will revisit the area of triangles, and learn how to find the area of triangles without explicitly being given the base and height.
Outside the classroom, the area of a triangle is used extensively in architecture, as triangles are strong, and triangular trusses and frames are used in many steel structures. As the inside empty area of the triangle increases, then the stress on the triangle increases, and architects must take this into consideration.
Triangles are also used in 3d computer graphics, as the 3d shapes they design actually consist of lots of little triangles, and they have to fit textures of a certain size (say 512 pixels x 512 pixels) onto a few triangles, so it is important that they know how and where for these textures to lie.
Math is Fun, “Activity: Garden Area”. http://www.mathsisfun.com/activity/garden-area.html
Illuminations: Resources for Teaching Math, “Discovering the Area Formula for Triangles”. http://illuminations.nctm.org/Lesson.aspx?id=1874
Illuminations: Resources for Teaching Math, “Area Tool”. http://illuminations.nctm.org/Activity.aspx?id=3567
Home Depot, http://www.homedepot.com/p/StarPro-Greens-Centipede-Southwest-Synthetic-Lawn-Grass-Turf-Sold-by-15-ft-W-rolls-x-Your-L-2-97-Sq-Ft-Equivalent-RGB7/202025213
Math is Fun, “Heron’s Formula”. http://www.mathsisfun.com/geometry/herons-formula.html
Maths in the City, “Most stable shape – triangle”. http://www.mathsinthecity.com/sites/most-stable-shape-triangle
Andre LaMothe, “Texture Mapping Mania”. http://archive.gamedev.net/archive/reference/articles/article852.html