Trigonometry pun

Source: https://www.facebook.com/743378802479548/photos/a.743768985773863.1073741828.743378802479548/792810117536416/?type=3&theater

Engaging students: Deriving the double angle formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Daniel Adkins. His topic, from Precalculus: deriving the double angle formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent.

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How does this topic extend what your students should have already learned?

A major factor that simplifies deriving the double angle formulas is recalling the trigonometric identities that help students “skip steps.” This is true especially for the Sum formulas, so a brief review of these formulas in any fashion would help students possibly derive the equations on their own in some cases. Listed below are the formulas that can lead directly to the double angle formulas.

A list of the formulas that students can benefit from recalling:

  • Sum Formulas:
    • sin(a+b) = sin(a)cos(b) + cos(a)sin(b)
    • cos(a+b) = cos(a)cos(b) – sin(a)sin(b)
    • tan(a+b) = [tan(a) +tan(b)] / [1-tan(a)tan(b)]

 

  • Pythagorean Identity:
    • Sin2 (a) + Cos2(a) = 1

 

This leads to the next topic, an activity for students to attempt the equation on their own.

 

 

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How could you as a teacher create an activity or project that involves your topic?

I’m a firm believer that the more often a student can learn something of their own accord, the better off they are. Providing the skeletal structure of the proofs for the double angle formulas of sine, cosine, and tangent might be enough to help students reach the formulas themselves. The major benefit of this is that, even though these are simple proofs, they have a lot of variance on how they may be presented to students and how “hands on” the activity can be.

I have an example worksheet demonstrating this with the first two double angle formulas attached below. This is in extremely hands on format that can be given to students with the formulas needed in the top right corner and the general position where these should be inserted. If needed the instructor could take this a step further and have the different Pythagorean Identities already listed out (I.e. Cos2(a) = 1 – Sin2(a), Sin2(a) = 1 – Cos2(a)) to emphasize that different formats could be needed. This is an extreme that wouldn’t take students any time to reach the conclusions desired. Of course a lot of this information could be dropped to increase the effort needed to reach the conclusion.

A major benefit with this also is that even though they’re simple, students will still feel extremely rewarded from succeeding on this paper on their own, and thus would be more intrinsically motivated towards learning trig identities.

 

 

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How can Technology be used to effectively engage students with this topic?

When it comes to technology in the classroom, I tend to lean more on the careful side. I know me as a person/instructor, and I know I can get carried away and make a mess of things because there was so much excitement over a new toy to play with. I also know that the technology can often detract from the actual math itself, but when it comes to trigonometry, and basically any form of geometric mathematics, it’s absolutely necessary to have a visual aid, and this is where technology excels.

The Wolfram Company has provided hundreds of widgets for this exact purpose, and below, you’ll find one attached that demonstrates that sin(2a) appears to be equal to its identity 2cos(a)sin(a). This is clearly not a rigorous proof, but it will help students visualize how these formulas interact with each other and how they may be similar. The fact that it isn’t rigorous may even convince students to try to debunk it. If you can make a student just irritated enough that they spend a few minutes trying to find a way to show you that you’re wrong, then you’ve done your job in that you’ve convinced them to try mathematics for a purpose.

After all, at the end of the day, it doesn’t matter how you begin your classroom, or how you engage your students, what matters is that they are engaged, and are willing to learn.

Wolfram does have a free cdf reader for its demonstrations on this website: http://demonstrations.wolfram.com/AVisualProofOfTheDoubleAngleFormulaForSine/

 

References

My Favorite One-Liners: Part 106

In this series, I’m compiling some of the quips and one-liners that I’ll use with my students to hopefully make my lessons more memorable for them.

Years ago, when I first taught Precalculus at the college level, I was starting a section on trigonometry by reminding my students of the acronym SOHCAHTOA for keeping the trig functions straight:

\sin \theta = \displaystyle \frac{\hbox{Opposite}}{\hbox{Hypotenuse}},

\cos \theta = \displaystyle \frac{\hbox{Adjacent}}{\hbox{Hypotenuse}},

\tan \theta = \displaystyle \frac{\hbox{Opposite}}{\hbox{Adjacent}}.

At this point, one of my students volunteered that a previous math teacher had taught her an acrostic to keep these straight: Some Old Hippie Caught Another Hippie Tripping On Acid.

Needless to say, I’ve been passing this pearl of wisdom on to my students ever since.

My Favorite One-Liners: Part 69

In this series, I’m compiling some of the quips and one-liners that I’ll use with my students to hopefully make my lessons more memorable for them.

This story, that I’ll share with my Precalculus students, comes from Fall 1996, my first semester as a college professor. I was teaching a Precalculus class, and the topic was vectors. I forget the exact problem (believe me, I wish I could remember it), but I was going over the solution of a problem that required finding \tan^{-1}(7). I told the class that I had worked this out ahead of time, and that the approximate answer was 82^o. Then I used that angle for whatever I needed it for and continued until obtaining the eventual solution.

(By the way, I now realize that I was hardly following best practices by computing that angle ahead of time. Knowing what I know now, I should have brought a calculator to class and computed it on the spot. But, as a young professor, I was primarily concerned with getting the answer right, and I was petrified of making a mistake that my students could repeat.)

After solving the problem, I paused to ask for questions. One student asked a good question, and then another.

Then a third student asked, “How did you know that \tan^{-1}(7) was 82^o?

Suppressing a smile, I answered, “Easy; I had that one memorized.”

The class immediately erupted… some with laughter, some with disbelief. (I had a terrific rapport with those students that semester; part of the daily atmosphere was the give-and-take with any number of exuberant students.) One guy in the front row immediately challenged me: “Oh yeah? Then what’s \tan^{-1}(9)?

I started to stammer, “Uh, um…”

“Aha!” they said. “He’s faking it.” They start pulling out their calculators.

Then I thought as fast as I could. Then I realized that I knew that \tan 82^o \approx 7, thanks to my calculation prior to class. I also knew that \displaystyle \lim_{x \to 90^-} \tan x = \infty since the graph of y = \tan x has a vertical asymptote at x = \pi/2 = 90^o. So the solution to \tan x = 9 had to be somewhere between 82^o and 90^o.

So I took a total guess. “84^o,” I said, faking complete and utter confidence.

Wouldn’t you know it, I was right. (The answer is about 83.66^o.)

In stunned disbelief, the guy who asked the question asked, “How did you do that?”

I was reeling in shock that I guessed correctly. But I put on my best poker face and answered, “I told you, I had it memorized.” And then I continued with the next example. For the rest of the semester, my students really thought I had it memorized.

To this day, this is my favorite stunt that I ever pulled off in front of my students.

Engaging students: Defining sine, cosine and tangent in a right triangle

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Loc Nguyen. His topic, from Geometry: defining sine, cosine and tangent in a right triangle.

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What interesting (i.e., uncontrived) word problems using this topic can your students do now?

There are many real world applications that involve in this topic and I will incorporate some problems in real life to engage the students.  Suppose I have a classroom that has the shape of rectangular prism.  I will begin my lesson by challenging the students to find the height of the classroom and of course I will award them with something cool.  I believe this will ignite students’ curiosity and excitement to participate into the problem.  In the process of finding the height, I will gradually introduce the concept of right triangle trigonometry.  The students will learn the relationship of ratios of the sides in the triangle.  Eventually, the students will realize that they need this concept for finding the height of the classroom.  I will pose some guiding questions to drive them toward the solution.  Such questions could be: what can I measure? Can we measure the angle from our eyes to the opposite corner of the ceiling point?   What formula will help me to find the height?
trig1

 

After this problem I will provide them many different real world problems to practice such as:

trig2 trig3

 

 

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How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in mathematics or science?

Knowing how to compute sine, cosine or tangent in the right triangle will help students a lot when they get to higher level math or other science class, especially Physics.  In higher level math, students will always have the chance to encounter this concept.  For example, in Pre-Calculus, the students will likely learn about polar system.  This requires students to have the strong fundamental understandings of sine, cosine and tangent in a right triangle.  Students will be asked to convert from the Cartesian system to polar system, or vice versa.  If they do not grasp the ideas of this topic, they will eventually encounter huge obstacles in future.  In science, especially physics, the students will learn a lot about the motions of an objects.  This will involve concepts of force, velocity, speed, momentum.  The students will need to understand the how to compute sine, cosine and tangent in the right triangle so that they can easily know how to approach the problems in physics.

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How can technology (YouTube, Khan Academy [khanacademy.org], Vi Hart, Geometers Sketchpad, graphing calculators, etc.) be used to effectively engage students with this topic?

This website, https://www.geogebra.org/material/simple/id/48148 , can be a great tool for the students to understand the relationships of the sides in the right triangle.  The website creates an activity for students to explore the ratios of the sides such as AC/BC, AC/AB, and BC/AB.  The students will observe the changes of the ratios based on the changes of theta and side BC which is the hypotenuse.  At this point, the students will be introduced the name of each side of the right triangle which corresponds to theta such as opposite, adjacent and hypotenuse.  This activity allows the students to visualize what happens to the triangle when we change the angle or its side lengths.  The students will then explore the activity to find interesting facts about the side ratios.  I will pose some questions to help the students understand the relationships of side ratios. Such questions could be:  What type of triangle is it?  Tell me how the triangle changes as we change the hypotenuse or angle.  If we know one side length and the angle, how can we find the other side lengths?  Those questions allow me to introduce the terms sine, cosine, and tangent in the right triangle.

trig4

References

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/High_School_Trigonometry/Applications_of_Right_Triangle_Trigonometry

https://www.geogebra.org/material/simple/id/48148

 

 

SOHCAHTOA

Years ago, when I first taught Precalculus at the college level, I was starting a section on trigonometry by reminding my students of the acronym SOHCAHTOA for keeping the trig functions straight:

\sin \theta = \displaystyle \frac{\hbox{Opposite}}{\hbox{Hypotenuse}},

\cos \theta = \displaystyle \frac{\hbox{Adjacent}}{\hbox{Hypotenuse}},

\tan \theta = \displaystyle \frac{\hbox{Opposite}}{\hbox{Adjacent}}.

At this point, one of my students volunteered that a previous math teacher had taught her an acrostic to keep these straight: Some Old Hippie Caught Another Hippie Tripping On Acid.

Needless to say, I’ve been passing this pearl of wisdom on to my students ever since.

10 Secret Trig Functions Your Math Teachers Never Taught You

Students in trigonometry are usually taught about six functions:

\sin \theta, \cos \theta, \tan \theta, \cot \theta, \sec \theta, \csc \theta

I really enjoyed this article about trigonometric functions that were used in previous generations but are no longer taught today, like \hbox{versin} \theta and \hbox{havercosin} \theta:

http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/roots-of-unity/10-secret-trig-functions-your-math-teachers-never-taught-you/

Naturally, Math With Bad Drawings had a unique take on this by adding a few more suggested functions to the list. My favorites:

Hippopotenuse

Source: https://www.facebook.com/sandraboynton/photos/a.206184542749790.56269.114554295246149/1075341509167418/?type=3&theater

See also http://www.zazzle.com/hippopotenuse_t_shirt_by_sandra_boynton-235290474700412664

The antiderivative of 1/(x^4+1): Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series on the computation of

\displaystyle \int \frac{dx}{x^4+1}

Part 1: Introduction.

Part 2: Factoring the denominator using De Moivre’s Theorem.

Part 3: Factoring the denominator using the difference of two squares.

Part 4: The partial fractions decomposition of the integrand.

Part 5: Partial evaluation of the resulting integrals.

Part 6: Evaluation of the remaining integrals.

Part 7: An apparent simplification using a trigonometric identity.

Part 8: Discussion of the angles for which the identity holds.

Part 9: Proof of the angles for which the identity holds.

Part 10: Implications for using this identity when computing definite integrals.

 

 

Different Ways of Solving a Contest Problem: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The following links comprised my series on different ways of solving the contest problem “If 3 \sin \theta = \cos \theta, what is \sin \theta \cos \theta?”

Part 1: Drawing the angle \theta

Part 2: A first attempt using a Pythagorean identity.

Part 3: A second attempt using a Pythagorean identity and the original hypothesis for \theta.