A couple months ago, the open-access journal PLOS Biology (which is a reputable open-access journal, unlike many others) published this very interesting article about the abuse of hypothesis testing in the scientific literature: http://journals.plos.org/plosbiology/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.1002106
Here are some of my favorite quotes from near the end of the article:
The key to decreasing p-hacking is better education of researchers. Many practices that lead to p-hacking are still deemed acceptable. John et al. measured the prevalence of questionable research practices in psychology. They asked survey participants if they had ever engaged in a set of questionable research practices and, if so, whether they thought their actions were defensible on a scale of 0–2 (0 = no, 1 = possibly, 2 = yes). Over 50% of participants admitted to “failing to report all of a study’s dependent measures” and “deciding whether to collect more data after looking to see whether the results were significant,” and these practices received a mean defensibility rating greater than 1.5. This indicates that many researchers p-hack but do not appreciate the extent to which this is a form of scientific misconduct. Amazingly, some animal ethics boards even encourage or mandate the termination of research if a significant result is obtained during the study, which is a particularly egregious form of p-hacking (Anonymous reviewer, personal communication).
Eliminating p-hacking entirely is unlikely when career advancement is assessed by publication output, and publication decisions are affected by the p-value or other measures of statistical support for relationships. Even so, there are a number of steps that the research community and scientific publishers can take to decrease the occurrence of p-hacking.
One thought on “The Extent and Consequences of P-Hacking in Science”
Another method is to repeat the experiment until you get the result you want, and forget(!) to mention the earlier trials.
I love the name “p-hacking”