In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for *engaging* their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission again comes from my former student Dorathy Scrudder. Her topic, from Pre-Algebra: order of operations.

B2. How does this topic extend what your students should have learned in previous courses?

Students should know how to add, subtract, multiply, divide, and use exponents by the time we cover this topic. To begin the class, I will have students split into two groups. Both groups will be given a series of one-step equations that correspond to a multi-step equation; however, one group will be given the steps out of order. We will then discuss why the two groups were working on the same multi-step equation but have different answers. The students should find it interesting and ask a few follow up questions such as, a) how do we know which answer is correct – it is correct by use of the order of operations which was decided on by mathematicians in the 1600s; b) how do we know what order to do the operations in – we use the acronym PEMDAS which stands for Parenthesis, Exponents, Multiplication/Division, Addition/Subtraction; c) how are we supposed to remember the acronym – we can either pronounce it pem-das or use the saying Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally.

C2. How has this topic appeared in high culture (art, classical music, theatre, etc.)?

The order of operations is also utilized in many areas outside of math. Take a play for example. To begin, an actor or actress must first audition for the desired role. Once they have been hired, the actor/actress must learn their lines and then rehearse with the other actors and actresses before the opening night of the play. The actor/actress cannot perform the opening night if they have not learned their lines yet. The set designers must also follow the order of operations. They must first design what they want the set to look like and then decide what materials they need and how much to buy. Once they have the materials, they cannot start painting intricate details until they have constructed the set. Following the order of operations is an important concept and hopefully these examples will help the students understand why we need to follow the steps in the given order.

D2. How was this topic adopted by the mathematical community?

Multiplication before addition has been a common practice since before algebra was written, however, it was always an assumption and mathematicians never felt that it had to be proved. The earliest printing that we have where multiplication comes before addition is from the early 1600s. Dr. Peterson, from Ask Dr. Math, has stated that he believes the term “order of operations” has only just come into common use within the past century by textbook authors. Sarah Sass, from University of Colorado in Denver, has found that students have trouble when it comes to the multiplication and division step and again at the addition and subtraction step of the order of operations. She suggests that instead of using “please excuse my dear aunt sally,” in which students often assume all multiplication comes before division and all addition comes before subtraction, Sass suggests that we teach “Pandas Eat: Mustard on Dumplings, and Apples with Spice.” This allows the students to understand that the mustard and dumplings, or the multiplication and division, go together at the same time, while the apples and spice, or addition and subtraction, are completed at the same time, all from the left to the right.

References:

http://www.math.ucdenver.edu/~jloats/Student%20pdfs/4_Order%20of%20OperationsSass.pdf

http://mathforum.org/library/drmath/view/52582.html