Engaging students: Deriving the distance formula

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Sarah Asmar. Her topic, from Algebra II: deriving the distance formula.

How could you as a teacher create an activity or project that involves your topic?

Many high school students complain about why they have to take a math class or that math is not fun. Deriving and even learning the distance formula is not interesting for very many students. One way that I would engage my students would be to take the entire class outside to teach this lesson. We will walk down to the football and I will have a three students go to one corner of the football field while the rest of the class stands at the opposite corner diagonally. I will then hand a stopwatch to three other students. Each of them will have one stopwatch. The three students on the opposite corner will be running to the corner where the rest of the class is standing. The students holding a stopwatch, will each be timing one of the students running. I will ask one student to run horizontally and then vertically on the outrebounds of the football field, one student will run vertically and then horizontally, and the last student will run diagonally through the football field. Once all three students have made it to the corner where the rest of the class is, I will then ask everyone “Who do you think made it to the class the fastest?” I will allow them to say what they think and why, and then I will ask the students with the stopwatches to share the times of each of the students that ran. At the end, this will get the students to conclude that the student that ran diagonally got to the entire class the fastest. This is a short activity, but it changes the atmosphere for the students by taking class outside for a little, and it is fun. What interesting things can you say about the people who contributed to the discovery and/or the development of this topic?

There were three main mathematicians/philosophers that contributed to the discovery of this topic. Pythagoras, Euclid and Descartes all played a roll in deriving the distance formula. Pythagoras is a very famous mathematician. At first, he saw geometry as a bunch of rules that were derived by empirical measurements, but later he came up with a way to connect geometric elements with numbers. Pythagoras is known for one of the most famous theorems in the mathematical world, the Pythagorean Theorem. The theorem touches on texts from Babylon, Egypt, and China, but Pythagoras was the one who gave it its form. The distance formula comes from the Pythagorean Theorem. Euclid is known as “The Father of Geometry.” He has five general axioms and five geometrical postulates. However, in his third postulate, he states that you can create a circle with any given distance and radius. This is represented by the formula x2+y2=r2. The distance formula comes from this equation as well. Last but not least, Descartes was the one who created the coordinate system. When finding the distance between two points on a coordinate plane, we would need to use the distance formula. All three of these men helped form the distance formula. How can technology be used effectively engage students with this topic?

Students find everything more interesting when they are able to use technology to learn. There is a website that allows students to explore math topics using what is called a Gizmo. A Gizmo can be used to solve for the distance between two points. The students are allowed to pick what their two points are and then use the distance formula to find the distance between the points they chose. When students have control over something, they tend to do what they are supposed to do without any complaints. The Gizmo allows students to explore on their own without the teacher having to tell them what to do step by step. I can even ask the students to plot three points that form a right triangle and have them find the distance of the points that form the hypotenuse. This can allow the students to make the connection between the distance formula and Pythagorean Theorem. There are many applications out there, but I remember using Gizmos when I was in high school and I loved it. It is a great tool to explore a mathematical topic.

References:

http://www.storyofmathematics.com/greek_pythagoras.html

http://www.storyofmathematics.com/hellenistic_euclid.html

http://www.storyofmathematics.com/17th_descartes.html