The infinite monkey theorem states that a monkey hitting keys at random on a typewriter keyboard for an infinite amount of time will almost surely type a given text, such as the complete works of William Shakespeare.

This can be formally proven using the second Borel-Cantelli Lemma, a topic which requires measure-theoretic probability. Thus leading me to one of the driest observations that I’ve ever read in a graduate-level textbook, following the proofs of the Borel-Cantelli Lemmas:

The record of a prolonged coin-tossing game is bound to contain every conceivable book in the Morse code [using heads for dot and tails for dash], from Hamlet to eight-place logarithmic tables. It has been suggested that an army of monkeys might be trained to pound typewriters at random in the hope that ultimately great works of literature would be produced. Using a coin for the same purpose may save feeding and training expenses and free the monkeys for other monkey business.

I'm a Professor of Mathematics and a University Distinguished Teaching Professor at the University of North Texas. For eight years, I was co-director of Teach North Texas, UNT's program for preparing secondary teachers of mathematics and science.
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