# Lessons from teaching gifted elementary students (Part 8b)

Every so often, I’ll informally teach a class of gifted elementary-school students. I greatly enjoy interacting with them, and I especially enjoy the questions they pose. Often these children pose questions that no one else will think about, and answering these questions requires a surprisingly depth of mathematical knowledge.

Here’s a question I once received, in the students’ original handwriting. They wanted me to add adjacent numbers on the bottom row to produce the number on the next row, building upward until I reached the apex of the triangle. Then, after I reached the top number, they wanted me to take the square root of that number. (Originally, they wanted me to first multiply by 80 before taking the square root, but evidently they decided to take it easy on me.)

And, just to see if I could do it, they wanted me to do all of this without using a calculator. But they were nice and allowed me to use pencil and paper. Here’s how I started the problem, using a trick that I use in my mathematical magic show. Suppose that there are only six numbers instead of twelve, and let the six numbers be $a$, $b$, $c$, $d$, $e$, and $f$. Then here’s how the triangle unfolds (turning the triangle upside down): $a \qquad \qquad \qquad \quad b \qquad \qquad \qquad \quad c \qquad \qquad \qquad \quad d \qquad \qquad \qquad \quad e \qquad \qquad \qquad \quad f$ $a+b \qquad \qquad \qquad b+c \qquad \qquad \qquad c+d \qquad \qquad \qquad d+e \qquad \qquad \qquad e+f$ $a+2b+c \qquad \qquad b+2c+d \qquad \qquad c+2d+e \qquad \qquad d+2e+f$ $a+3b+3c+d \qquad \quad b+3c+3d+e \qquad \quad c+3d+3e+f$ $a+4b+6c+4d+e \qquad b+4c+6d+5e+f$ $a+5b+10c+10d+5e+f$

In other words, the top number can be obtained by using the numbers on the fifth row of Pascal’s triangle (recall that the fifth row of Pascal’s triangle has six numbers on it). Specifically, if I multiply the bottom numbers by the corresponding number in a row of Pascal’s triangle and add them up, I’ll get the number on top without having to compute all of the intermediate steps.

For the problem my students gave me, the bottom row has 12 numbers, which means I’ll need to use the 11th row of Pascal’s triangle. Also, as we’ll see, I was fortunate that my students gave me a simple pattern of consecutive squares for the numbers on the bottom row. Since the numbering in Pascal’s triangle starts on zero, the numbers in the bottom row are $(k+1)^2$ as $k$ varies from 0 to 11.

Putting all this together, I can conclude that $y = \displaystyle \sum_{k=0}^{11} (k+1)^2 {11 \choose k}$.

Beginning with tomorrow’s post, I’ll discuss how I computed this sum without a calculator.