In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.
I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).
This student submission comes from my former student A’Lyssa Rodriguez. Her topic, from Precalculus: using radians to measure angles instead of degrees
D1. How did people’s conception of this topic change over time?
Babylonians came up with the degree system. For their number system they liked to use the number 60 and multiples thereof. Therefore they decided on the number 360 and each number represented a degree in a circle. This number was completely arbitrary and was simply a matter of preference by the Babylonians. Although this makes handling circles and angles seem easier, due to it being an arbitrary number, it makes degrees unnatural. So the deeper concepts in math needed a more natural number. Radians are that more natural measurement we needed. Using the length of the radius of any circle and wrapping around the outside of that circle, one can see that it almost completely goes around the entire circle 6 times. To make up for what is left we multiply the radius by 2pi. Thus the equation for the circumference of a circle is C = 2 πr. This is the reason and the change over time for the use of radians instead of degrees.
C2. How has this topic appeared in high culture (art, classical music, theatre, etc.)?
Pure tones are found in music. Regardless of other musical properties such as amplitude or the time relation to other sound waves (phase), these tones will have a consistent sinusoidal sound wave. The sine function used to measure these waves use radians. Although degrees are technically possible, this function is most accurate when using radians. According to Mathematics and Music: Composition, Perception, and Performance by James S. Walker and Gary W. Don, the formula that can be used to determine the oscillation for a tuning fork is y= Asin(θ) where θ is measured in radians and is equal to 2 πvt+ θ0 and θ0 is the initial value of θ when t=0. So y = Asin(2 πvt+ π/2).
B2. How does this topic extend what your students should have learned in previous courses?
In previous courses, students use degrees to measure angles and to refer to circles. Even activities outside of the classroom, such as snowboarding, use degrees. This was easiest and best for learning purposes, up until this point that is. Now that trigonometric functions will be introduced, the circle will be studied more in depth, and more real life situations will be given, it is necessary to use radians instead of degrees. The calculations will become more accurate in some cases, some even easier, and it is essential to use a more natural number. This topic merely adds on to what the students already know about angles but also makes them think about it in a different way. One way their previous knowledge of degrees will be extended is by learning to convert from degrees to radians and back again.