How I Impressed My Wife: Part 5c

Earlier in this series, I gave three different methods of showing that

Q = \displaystyle \int_0^{2\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + 2 a \sin x \cos x + (a^2 + b^2) \sin^2 x} = \displaystyle \frac{2\pi}{|b|}.

Using the fact that Q is independent of a, I’ll now give a fourth method.
green lineSince Q is independent of a, I can substitute any convenient value of a that I want without changing the value of Q. For example, let me substitute a =0:

Q = \displaystyle \int_0^{2\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + 2 a \sin x \cos x + (a^2 + b^2) \sin^2 x}

= \displaystyle \int_{0}^{2\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + 2 \cdot 0 \cdot \sin x \cos x + (0^2 + b^2) \sin^2 x}

= \displaystyle \int_{0}^{2\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x}

So that I can employ the magic substitution u = \tan x/2, I’ll divide the interval of integration into two pieces and then perform the substitution x = t + 2\pi on the second piece:

Q = \displaystyle \int_{0}^{\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x} + \int_{\pi}^{2\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x}

= \displaystyle \int_{0}^{\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x} + \int_{-\pi}^{0} \frac{dt}{\cos^2 (t+2\pi) + b^2 \sin^2 (t+2\pi)}

= \displaystyle \int_{0}^{\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x} + \int_{-\pi}^{0} \frac{dt}{\cos^2 t + b^2 \sin^2 t}

= \displaystyle \int_{0}^{\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x} + \int_{-\pi}^{0} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x}

= \displaystyle \int_{-\pi}^{\pi} \frac{dx}{\cos^2 x + b^2 \sin^2 x}

green line

I’ll continue with this fourth evaluation of the integral in tomorrow’s post.

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1 Comment

  1. How I Impressed My Wife: Index | Mean Green Math

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