Engaging students: Defining a function of one variable

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission again comes from my former student Lydia Rios. Her topic, from Algebra: defining a function of one variable.

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How does this topic extend what your students should have learned in previous courses?

From Prekindergarten and up, students have been practicing skills that prepared them from the concepts of a function. By counting they knew that they were adding that same number to every other number in the same sequence. By doing 1,2,3,4,5,… counting by ones they realized that every left number was being added by one to get the right number. They were taking the input 2 and doing the operation of addition by 1 to get the output of 3. The same thing was happening for other counting sequences, or even general operation statements such as 1+7=8. They have been building up to the idea of functions without recognizing that they were. You can use this no simple idea that’s been installed in them to understand what functions are. You can build them up from here and then start giving them statements with a missing component so they can find a missing variable. Then finally, building them towards defining a function where you give them similar statements with a missing component so that they can start writing out their own equations. *Don’t forget to introduce input and output and that are function represent the relationship between out input (x) is having this operation done to it to get our output (y).

Mathematics Vertical Alignment, Prekindergarten-Grade 2 (texas.gov)

Introduction to Functions | Boundless Algebra (lumenlearning.com)

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How has this topic appeared in pop culture (movies, TV, current music, video games, etc.)?

You could use different appearances in pop culture to get students to understand input and output, such as when you are playing video games you are putting your input on the controller to get the output on the screen. However, this may not have an association with function unless you want to start getting into detail about programming. Therefore, to bring about the topic of functions I would just use a word problem that associates with pop culture. You could also bring the business side of pop culture into the class, such as setting up an equation that shows how the more tickets bought makes and increased revenue for the production of a movie. For example, lets say a ticket cost $8.50 and the production get’s 40% of the profit. Then you could set up the equal as 0.40(8.5X)=Y with 0.40 representing 40% of the profit that the production team will receive of the $8.50 tickets.

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How has this topic appeared in high culture (art, classical music, theatre, etc.)?

The topic of inputs and outputs can be touched on in reference to theatre. Both in lighting and sound, inputs and outputs are used. Therefore, the concept of this can be taught to the students. For lighting, you can talk about DMX which is what LED lights use so that the technology in the lights can pick up the functions that the computer is telling it to do. You connect the DMX in cord to the DMX in into the lighting board and then the DMX out of the lighting board to the DMX out on the lights. The same idea works with audio. However, the inputs are the microphones and the outputs are the speakers. You would take the microphone aux cord and plug that into the inputs on the Sound Board and then you would take the speaker cord and plug that into the outputs on the Sound Board. Therefore, that particular microphone is connected to that speaker and will only come out of that speaker.

“Welcome to Coolmath.” Cool Math – Free Online Cool Math Lessons, Cool Math Games & Apps, Fun Math Activities, Pre-Algebra, Algebra, Precalculus, www.coolmath.com/algebra/15-functions.

Engaging students: Graphs of linear equations

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission again comes from my former student Morgan Mayfield. His topic, from Algebra: graphs of linear equations.

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What interesting (i.e., uncontrived) word problems using this topic can your students do now? (You may find resources such as http://www.spacemath.nasa.gov to be very helpful in this regard; feel free to suggest others.)

Given a rather vague statement such as ”Graphs of Linear Equations”, I was unsure if it meant only the technique of analyzing graphs or being able to have the ability to build a graph of a linear equation. In A1, I attempt to rely on analysis. Here are the problems I encountered on Space Math @ NASA:

  • Problem 1 – Calculate the Rate corresponding to the speed of the galaxies in the Hubble Diagram. (Called the Hubble Constant, it is a measure of how fast the universe is expanding).
  • Problem 2 – Calculate the rate of sunspot number change between the indicated years.

Space Math has these problems listed as “Finding the slope of a linear graph”, the two key phrases being “Finding the slope” and “linear graph”. The students must be able to do both. Students are given three sets of graphical data to analyze (shown below). I am not an expert in any of these fields, but I suspect these graphs were made using real data scientists collected. The Space Math team gave students two points on the data to aid in calculations. What makes these graphs interesting is the fact that they are messy, but real compared to a graph of a linear equation in a classroom. These graphs can be analyzed further than the problems Space Math offered. Students could see how that data can be collected and put into a scatterplot, like in the case of graph 2, and have an approximately linear correlation. Sadly, most things don’t follow a neat model of what we see in our math class, yet we can still derive meaning from real-world phenomena because of what we learn in math class. Scientists use their understanding of graphs of linear equations and linear models to analyze data and come to conclusions about our real-world environment. In graph 2, a scientist would clearly see that there is a linear proportional relationship between the speed and distance from the Hubble space telescope of a galaxy, or more meaningfully understood as a rate, 76 km/sec/mpc. Now, if a scientist encountered a new galaxy, they could determine an approximate speed or distance of the galaxy given the other variable.

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How can this topic be used in your students’ future courses in mathematics or science?

Students will formalize learning about graphing linear function in Algebra I. Graphs of linear equations are important in solving linear inequalities in two variables, solving systems of linear inequalities, solving systems of linear equations, and solving systems of equations involving linear and nonlinear equations which are all topics in Algebra I and II. Solving systems can be done algebraically, but graphing systems give students a more concrete way in finding a solution and is an excellent way of conveying information to others. If a student ever found themself in a business class, they may be asked to make “business decisions” on a product to buy. If I were the student explaining my decision to my teacher and potential “investors”, I would be making a graph of linear systems to help explain my “business decisions”. Generally, a business class would also introduce “Supply and Demand” graphs, where the solution is called the “equilibrium”. Many graphs in an intro class depict supply and demand as a system of linear equations.

In the high school sciences, a student will come across many linear equations. Students in a regular physics course and an AP physics course will come across simplified distance vs. time graphs to represent velocity, velocity vs. time graphs to represent acceleration, and force vs. distance graphs to represent work and energy (khan academy link included below). Note, just because many of the examples used in a physics class are graphs of linear equations, real life rarely works out like this.

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How has this topic appeared in pop culture (movies, TV, current music, video games, etc.)?

We are shown data daily that our climate is changing fast through infographics on social media, posters set up by environmentalists, and news broadcasting. Climate change is one of the most important issues that society faces today and is on the collective consciousness of my generation as we have already seen the early consequences of climate change. Climate change, like most real-world data collecting does not always follow a good linear fit or any other specific fit with 100% accurately. However, a way scientists and media want to convey a message to us is to overlay a “trend line” or a “line of best fit” over the graphed data. Looking at the examples below, we can clearly understand that average global temperatures have been on the rise since 1880 despite fluctuations year-to-year and comparisons to the expected average global temperature. The same graph also gives insight on how the same data can also be cherrypicked to fit another person’s agenda. From 1998 – 2012, the rate of change, represented by a line, is lower than both 1970 – 1984 and 1984 – 1998. In fact, the rate is dramatically lower, thus climate change is no more! Not so, this period of slowing down doesn’t immediately refute the notion of climate change but could be construed as so. Actually, in the NOAA article linked below and its corresponding graph actually finds that we were using dated techniques that led to underestimates and concluded that the IPCC was wrong in it’s original analysis of 1998-2012 and that the trend was actually getting worse, indicated by the trend line on the second graph, as the global temperature departed from the long-term average.

Look at how much information could be construed by a few linear functions represented on a graph and some given rate of changes.

 

 

References:

(or Problem 226 from https://spacemath.gsfc.nasa.gov/algebra1.html)

https://d1yqpar94jqbqm.cloudfront.net/documents/Gateway5A1VAChart.pdf (or grade 5 – Algebra II Vertical Alignment https://www.texasgateway.org/resource/vertical-alignment-charts-revised-mathematics-teks)

https://bim.easyaccessmaterials.com/index.php?location_user=cchs

https://www.khanacademy.org/science/in-in-class11th-physics/in-in-class11th-physics-work-energy-and-power/in-in-class11-introduction-to-work/a/work-ap-physics-1

https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/news/recent-global-surface-warming-hiatus

https://www.climate.gov/news-features/climate-qa/did-global-warming-stop-1998

Thoughts on Numerical Integration: Index

I’m doing something that I should have done a long time ago: collecting a series of posts into one single post. The links below show my series on numerical integration.

Part 1 and Part 2: Introduction

Part 3: Derivation of left, right, and midpoint rules

Part 4: Derivation of Trapezoid Rule

Part 5: Derivation of Simpson’s Rule

Part 6: Connection between the Midpoint Rule, the Trapezoid Rule, and Simpson’s Rule

Part 7: Implementation of numerical integration using Microsoft Excel

Part 8, Part 9, Part 10, Part 11: Numerical exploration of error analysis

Part 12 and Part 13: Left endpoint rule and rate of convergence

Part 14 and Part 15: Right endpoint rule and rate of convergence

Part 16 and Part 17: Midpoint Rule and rate of convergence

Part 18 and Part 19: Trapezoid Rule and rate of convergence

Part 20 and Part 21: Simpson’s Rule and rate of convergence

Part 22: Comparison of these results to theorems found in textbooks

Part 23: Return to Part 2 and accuracy of normalcdf function on TI calculators

Engaging students: Slope-intercept form of a line

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Fidel Gonzales. His topic, from Algebra I: the point-slope intercept form of a line.

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How can technology (YouTube, Khan Academy [khanacademy.org], Vi Hart, Geometers Sketchpad, graphing calculators, etc.) be used to effectively engage students with this topic?

Note: It’s not enough to say “such-and-such is a great website”; you need to explain in some detail why it’s a great website.

Technology is always advancing right in front of us. Using it in the classroom can be a tool that allows students to have a more hands on experience in the classroom. When I was in middle school, the only tool that we had to learn slope intercept form of a line was using a ti-inspire calculator. However, schools are receiving more funding and can provide students with tablets or computers to assist in their academic career. Gizmos is a website that contains many user-friendly programs that a student can use to learn a concept, or an educator can present to reinforce a skill. For the topic of slope intercept form of a line, the gizmo has two sliding parts that allows the user to change the values of the equation. One for the slope and one for the y- intercept. The student can adjust the values of both and observe the changes that occur to the line. This experience is more user friendly since it only allows the person to change those two aspects compared to having to input the equation each time into the graphing calculator. The reason that students would be more likely to be engaged is because they are already used to technology and there is still a need to incorporate technology into the classroom. So, students would prefer using a computer compared to the traditional paper and pencil. Imagine them having to graph by hand each graph to compare differences!

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How could you as a teacher create an activity or project that involves your topic?

Slope intercept form is a way that data can be displayed. The data is usually continuously decreasing or continuously increasing. There is a magnitude of activities that can be used to help students gather a better understanding of the topic. As an educator, I would create a scavenger hunt that displayed either a word problem or a graph. Both will ask for the student to represent the information as slope intercept form. For each problem, there will be 4 answer choices that the student could choose for their answer. On their worksheet, there will be fill in the blanks that will be filled up from the letter that is in front of the correct answer. As the student progresses to the next problem, they will be filling out the letter blanks in a random order. So, if the person does the activity correctly, they should end up with the correct word phrase. The word phrase will be a math pun to add to the magic. This activity will allow students to switch from graph and word problems to slope intercept form.

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How does this topic extend what your students should have learned in previous courses?

As educators, we want to ensure that our students have the proper foundation to continue advancing their mathematic skills. Slope intercept form is an algebra base lesson. The skills that students used to reach this topic is addition. At a young age, students learn to count numbers in repeated increments. An example of this is when a student keeps adding 5 until they reach a certain number. Displaying this as slope intercept would be a line with no y intercept and a slope of 5. We have even used y intercepts in context to adding in past classes. An example of this would be a person wanting to sell 200 dollars’ worth of tickets that are worth 5 dollars each and they already started with 57 dollars. If they were to solve the problem using slope intercept form, they would put 200 as the y value and 57 as the y intercept of the problem. The slope would be 5. In the past, they would add 5 to 57 until they reach their goal. Slope intercept form is a way for students to display data with a constant increasing or decreasing value. It is more convenient for students to use slope intercept form compared to how they displayed the pattern in the past. They use it now since they learned why it works before they reach algebra.

References:

https://www.geogebra.org/about

 

Parabolic Properties from Pieces of String

I am pleased to announce that my latest paper, “Parabolic Properties from Pieces of String,” has now been published in Math Horizons. This was a really fun project for me. As I describe in the paper, I started wondering if it was possible to convince a student who hadn’t learned calculus yet that string art from two line segments traces a parabola. Not only was I able to come up with a way of demonstrating this without calculus, but I was also able to (1) prove that a quadratic polynomial satisfies the focus-directrix property of a parabola, which is the reverse of the usual logic when students learn conic sections, and (2) prove the reflective property of parabolas. I was really pleased with the final result, and am very happy that this was accepted for publication.

Due to copyright restrictions, I’m not permitted to freely distribute the final, published version of my article. However, I am able to share the following version of the article.

The above PDF file is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in College Mathematics Journal on February 24, 2022, available online: Full article: Parabolic Properties from Pieces of String (tandfonline.com)

Engaging students: Finding the slope of a line

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place. I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course). This student submission again comes from my former student Bri Del Pozzo. Her topic, from Algebra: finding the slope of a line. green line How could you as a teacher create an activity or project that involves your topic? As a teacher I would likely introduce a very popular and well-received project to my students, the project where students draw an angular image on a graph and then calculate the slope of 20 lines from their image. I love this project because it allows students to connect mathematics to art and encourages them to express themselves creatively. As a precursor to the project, I would introduce students to the types of slopes and their characteristics using a tool that I learned in my Algebra Class, Mr. Slope Guy (pictured below).
In the image the positive slope is indicated by the left eyebrow and above the plus-sign eye, the negative slope is the right eyebrow by the negative sign eye, the nose represents the undefined slope and is denoted by a vertical line and a “u” for undefined, and the mouth represents the zero-slope shown by a horizontal line and two zeros. The students could use this resource while completing their projects to serve as a reminder of the types of slopes. The main focus of the project, however, would focus on the process of how to find slope given two points on a line. (This project is based on an example from: https://kidcourses.com/slope/ #5) green line How does this topic extend what your students should have learned in previous courses?             In the grade 7 TEKS for mathematics, students are expected to “represent linear relationships using verbal descriptions, tables, graphs, and equations that simplify to the form .” This creates a foundation for finding the slope of a line by introducing students to multiple representations of what slope looks like. When discussing how to find the slope of a line, I think that the tabular representation is a great tool for students to visualize the meaning behind slope. In seventh grade math, students were able to conceptualize slope without using the formula. When finding slope in early algebra, I would encourage students to look at graphs from a new lens, noticing features such as the sign of the line, the steepness of the line, the difference in x’s and y’s at different points on the line, and the slope itself. When looking at a table, I would ask students to calculate the difference in x’s and y’s as they go down the rows of the table and have them compare those numbers to those that they saw in the graph. green line How has this topic appeared in the news?             As many of us know, over the past 18 months or so, the number of Covid-19 Cases in the United States has been on the rise. For a long time, the total number of cases in the United States was growing exponentially and very quickly. As more research has been done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we have learned that there is a way to flatten the curve and reduce the number of daily cases. This initiative to flatten the curve has resulted in the growth of cases to resemble liner growth rather than exponential growth. As mathematicians, we can calculate the slope of the line that represents the (linear) growth of Covid-19 cases per day. We can make comparisons between growth rates in different states and use that data to make predictions about effectiveness of Covid-19 prevention procedures.

Square roots and logarithms without a calculator (Part 12)

I recently came across the following computational trick: to estimate \sqrt{b}, use

\sqrt{b} \approx \displaystyle \frac{b+a}{2\sqrt{a}},

where a is the closest perfect square to b. For example,

\sqrt{26} \approx \displaystyle \frac{26+25}{2\sqrt{25}} = 5.1.

I had not seen this trick before — at least stated in these terms — and I’m definitely not a fan of computational tricks without an explanation. In this case, the approximation is a straightforward consequence of a technique we teach in calculus. If f(x) = (1+x)^n, then f'(x) = n (1+x)^{n-1}, so that f'(0) = n. Since f(0) = 1, the equation of the tangent line to f(x) at x = 0 is

L(x) = f(0) + f'(0) \cdot (x-0) = 1 + nx.

The key observation is that, for x \approx 0, the graph of L(x) will be very close indeed to the graph of f(x). In Calculus I, this is sometimes called the linearization of f at x =a. In Calculus II, we observe that these are the first two terms in the Taylor series expansion of f about x = a.

For the problem at hand, if n = 1/2, then

\sqrt{1+x} \approx 1 + \displaystyle \frac{x}{2}

if x is close to zero. Therefore, if a is a perfect square close to b so that the relative difference (b-a)/a is small, then

\sqrt{b} = \sqrt{a + b - a}

= \sqrt{a} \sqrt{1 + \displaystyle \frac{b-a}{a}}

\approx \sqrt{a} \displaystyle \left(1 + \frac{b-a}{2a} \right)

= \sqrt{a} \displaystyle \left( \frac{2a + b-a}{2a} \right)

= \sqrt{a} \displaystyle \left( \frac{b+a}{2a} \right)

= \displaystyle \frac{b+a}{2\sqrt{a}}.

One more thought: All of the above might be a bit much to swallow for a talented but young student who has not yet learned calculus. So here’s another heuristic explanation that does not require calculus: if a \approx b, then the geometric mean \sqrt{ab} will be approximately equal to the arithmetic mean (a+b)/2. That is,

\sqrt{ab} \approx \displaystyle \frac{a+b}{2},

so that

\sqrt{b} \approx \displaystyle \frac{a+b}{2\sqrt{a}}.

Engaging students: Equations of two variables

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission again comes from my former student Taylor Bigelow. Her topic, from Algebra: equations of two variables.

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What interesting (i.e., uncontrived) word problems using this topic can your students do now?

This topic is perfect for word problems, you can make a lot of interesting word problems using 2 variables. Here are some examples of word problems.

● Sam is mowing lawns for money over the summer. They charge $10 an hour. They have a family discount of 20% per hour. If they mow non-family members laws for 10 hours this week and mowed family members laws for 3 hours, how much money did they make this week?
○ 10N+8F=?
○ N=10 and F=3
○ 10(10)+8(3)=124
○ So they made $124

● John is buying blue and yellow gummy bears at the store. He has $20 to spend on candy. Blue gummy bears come in bags of 20 for $1 each, and Yellow gummy bears come in bags of 50 for $3 each. He knows we want exactly 100 Blue gummy bears. How many yellow gummy bears can he buy?
○ B=Blue gummy Bears Y=Yellow gummy Bears
○ 20=B+Y
○ B= 100/20= $5 for 100 gummy bears
○ 20= 5+Y so Y=$15
○ With $15 he can buy 5 bags of yellow gummy bears. 5*50=250. So he can buy
250 yellow gummy bears

● Alex is building a fence for her backyard. She is building it in a rectangular shape, and she wants the length of the fence to be twice as long as the width of the fence. If the area of her backyard is 200 feet, how long is the width, and how long is the length?
○ L=length W=width
○ L*W=200
○ L=2W
○ 2W*W=200
○ 2W^2=200
○ W^2=100
○ W=10
○ So L=2(10)=20

These are just 3 examples I came up with on the spot. You can create a lot more, and
with a variety of difficulties.

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How does this topic extend what your students should have learned in previous courses?
This topic builds on knowledge from elementary school and extends into almost all future math. It starts with kids understanding multiplication and addition, then to them being introduced to solving equations in middle school, and then is heavily used in high school math classes, and any math class that requires basic algebra skills in the future. I looked through some of the teks to find references to two-variable equations and found it only referenced in algebra 1 and 2. I also went back through 6th, 7th, and 8th grade and found where they were using one-variable equations since that is the prior knowledge that they are building onto with two-variable equations.

● 6th Grade
○ (9) Expressions, equations, and relationships. The student applies mathematical
process standards to use equations and inequalities to represent situations. The
student is expected to:
■ (A) write one-variable, one-step equations and inequalities to represent
constraints or conditions within problems;
■ (B) represent solutions for one-variable, one-step equations and
inequalities on number lines; and
■ (C) write corresponding real-world problems given one-variable,
one-step equations or inequalities.
○ (10) Expressions, equations, and relationships. The student applies
mathematical process standards to use equations and inequalities to solve
problems. The student is expected to:
■ (A) model and solve one-variable, one-step equations and inequalities
that represent problems, including geometric concepts; and
■ (B) determine if the given value(s) make(s) one-variable, one-step
equations or inequalities true.
● 7th Grade
○ (10) Expressions, equations, and relationships. The student applies
mathematical process standards to use one-variable equations and inequalities
to represent situations. The student is expected to:
■ (A) write one-variable, two-step equations and inequalities to represent
constraints or conditions within problems;
■ (B) represent solutions for one-variable, two-step equations and
inequalities on number lines; and
■ (C) write a corresponding real-world problem given a one-variable,
two-step equation or inequality.
○ (11) Expressions, equations, and relationships. The student applies
mathematical process standards to solve one-variable equations and inequalities.
The student is expected to:
■ (A) model and solve one-variable, two-step equations and inequalities;
■ (B) determine if the given value(s) make(s) one-variable, two-step
equations and inequalities true
● 8th Grade
○ Expressions, equations, and relationships. The student applies mathematical
process standards to use one-variable equations or inequalities in problem
situations. The student is expected to:
■ (A) write one-variable equations or inequalities with variables on both
sides that represent problems using rational number coefficients and
constants;
■ (B) write a corresponding real-world problem when given a
one-variable equation or inequality with variables on both sides of the
equal sign using rational number coefficients and constants;
■ (C) model and solve one-variable equations with variables on both
sides of the equal sign that represent mathematical and real-world
problems using rational number coefficients and constants
● Algebra 1
○ (2) Linear functions, equations, and inequalities. The student applies the
mathematical process standards when using properties of linear functions to
write and represent in multiple ways, with and without technology, linear
equations, inequalities, and systems of equations. The student is expected to:
■ (B) write linear equations in two variables in various forms, including y
= mx + b, Ax + By = C, and y – y1 = m (x – x1 ), given one point and the
slope and given two points;
■ (C) write linear equations in two variables given a table of values, a
graph, and a verbal description;
■ (H) write linear inequalities in two variables given a table of values, a
graph, and a verbal description
○ (3) Linear functions, equations, and inequalities. The student applies the
mathematical process standards when using graphs of linear functions, key
features, and related transformations to represent in multiple ways and solve,
with and without technology, equations, inequalities, and systems of equations.
The student is expected to:
■ (D) graph the solution set of linear inequalities in two variables on the
coordinate plane;
■ (F) graph systems of two linear equations in two variables on the
coordinate plane and determine the solutions if they exist;
■ (G) estimate graphically the solutions to systems of two linear
equations with two variables in real-world problems; and
■ (H) graph the solution set of systems of two linear inequalities in two
variables on the coordinate plane.
○ (5) Linear functions, equations, and inequalities. The student applies the
mathematical process standards to solve, with and without technology, linear
equations and evaluate the reasonableness of their solutions. The student is
expected to:
■ (C) solve systems of two linear equations with two variables for
mathematical and real-world problems.
● Algebra 2
○ (3) Systems of equations and inequalities. The student applies mathematical
processes to formulate systems of equations and inequalities, use a variety of
methods to solve, and analyze reasonableness of solutions. The student is
expected to:
■ (C) solve, algebraically, systems of two equations in two variables
consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation;
■ (D) determine the reasonableness of solutions to systems of a linear
equation and a quadratic equation in two variables;
■ (E) formulate systems of at least two linear inequalities in two variables;
■ (F) solve systems of two or more linear inequalities in two variables; and
■ (G) determine possible solutions in the solution set of systems of two or
more linear inequalities in two variables.

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What interesting things can you say about the people who contributed to the discovery and/or the development of this topic?

Algebra is a really old concept, dating back almost 4 thousand years ago. (So kids have been doing the same thing in classes for millennia.) The Babylonians were the first to use algebra in the 1900s. The Egyptians also used algebra around the same time, but they focused on linear algebra, while the Babylonians did quadratic and cubic equations. The ancient Greeks used geometric algebra around 300 BC. They solved algebra equations using geometry, and their methods are very different from the ones we use today. A thousand years later, around 800 AD, Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi became the father of modern algebra. The middle east used Arabic numerals (the numbers 0-9 which we still use today). The word algorithm is even derived from his name. Algebra started thousands of years ago to solve problems and has been developed over time into what it is today.

Citations:
https://www.mathtutordvd.com/public/Who-Invented-Algebra.cfm
https://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.ViewTAC?tac_view=4&ti=19&pt=2&ch=111