Engaging students: Finding prime factorizations

In my capstone class for future secondary math teachers, I ask my students to come up with ideas for engaging their students with different topics in the secondary mathematics curriculum. In other words, the point of the assignment was not to devise a full-blown lesson plan on this topic. Instead, I asked my students to think about three different ways of getting their students interested in the topic in the first place.

I plan to share some of the best of these ideas on this blog (after asking my students’ permission, of course).

This student submission comes from my former student Brendan Gunnoe. His topic, from Pre-Algebra: finding prime factorizations.

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How can prime factorization be used in curriculum?

The teacher starts the class by asking students how they would find the least common multiple and greatest common divisor for two numbers. For the LCM, the most basic answer is listing the multiples of both denominators until they share a common multiple. For GCD, the most basic answer is listing out the factors of both numerator and denominator and finding the largest one in common.

Both processes can be made faster when using prime factorization, especially for larger numbers. First, do the process of prime factorization for both numbers. Then, for each prime, take the highest power on the lists and multiply everything together.

For example, take 12 and 45.

12 = 2^2 \times 3^1

45 =3^2 \times 5^1

\lcm(12,45) = 2^2 \times 3^2 \times 5^1 = 180

The process for finding the GCF is similar. Start off by doing the prime factorization for both numbers. Then, for each shared prime factor, take the smallest power and multiply everything together.

For example, take 12 and 30.

12 = 2^2 \times 3^1

30 =2^1 \times 3^1 \times 5^1

\gcd(12,45) = 2^1 \times 3^1 = 6

This process generalizes very easily for any amount of input numbers.

GCF and LCM are incredibly important when working with fractions and are used when reducing and adding fractions. Because fractions have loads of misconceptions associated with them, giving students another way to understand fractions can be very beneficial.

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Technology

Have you ever wondered why we use 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in an hour? Or why there is 24 hours in a day? What about why there is 360 degrees in a circle? One explanation is because these numbers can be divided evenly by loads of smaller numbers that we use often. In other words, these numbers have lots of factors in them. These kinds of numbers are called highly composite numbers.

A great video showcasing highly composite numbers is Numberphile’s video “5040 and other Anti-Prime Numbers,” hosted by Dr. James Grimes. This video is extremely dense with informative as Dr. Grimes explains what a highly composite number is, shows properties of these numbers, explains why they have these properties, and gives examples of how highly composite numbers are used both in math and in real life. Dr. Grimes also gives a few historical uses of highly composite numbers, which answer some of the questions listed above.

Prime factorization is the foundation of highly composite numbers. Highly composite numbers can be an interesting and exciting application of prime factorization.

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Application

Semiprime numbers were also used in the making of the Arecibo message. Because the message is composed of 1679 bits, there is only four ways of decomposing the message into a rectangle. All possible decompositions of 1679 into a rectangle are 1×1679, 73×23, 23×73 and 1679×1. If decoded correctly, then the message forms a picture which contains loads of information about the solar system and life on Earth.

For a way to make semiprime numbers into an engaging activity for students, the teacher could have students create their own mini version of the Arecibo message and show them off in class. Students can be made into groups and each group get assigned a certain semiprime. Then, each group gets to decide what information goes in their mini message and draw their message onto a sheet of poster paper with a grid on it. Finally, they present their message to the class, representing the students sending their message off into space for extraterrestrial life to decode.

References:

https://topdrawer.aamt.edu.au/Fractions/Misunderstandings

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2JM2oImb9Qg

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semiprime

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arecibo_message

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