# 2048 and algebra (Part 9)

In this series of posts, I consider how algebra can be used to answer a question about the 2048 game: From looking at a screenshot of the final board, can I figure out how many moves were needed to reach the final board? Can I calculate how many new 2-tiles and 4-tiles were introduced to the board throughout the course of this game? In this post, we consider the event horizon of 2048, which I reached after about four weeks of intermittent doodling:

In yesterday’s post, we developed a system of two equations in two unknowns to solve for $t$ and $f$, the number of 2-tiles and 4-tiles (respectively) that appeared throughout the course of the game:

$2t + 4f = \displaystyle \sum_{n=2}^{17} 2^n$.

$2t + \displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = 3,867,072$

In this post and tomorrow’s post, I consider how the two sums in the above equations can be obtained without directly adding the terms.

In yesterday’s post, we used the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series to calculate the second sum:

$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = 14 \times 2^{18} + 2^3 = 3,670,024$

In this post, I perform this calculation again, except symbolically and more compactly. The key initial steps are writing the series as a double sum and then interchanging the order of summation (much like reversing the order of integration in a double integral). This is a trick that I’ve used again and again in my own research efforts, but it seems that the students that I teach have never learned this trick. Here we go:

$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = \displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} \sum_{k=1}^n 2^{n+2} = \displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^{15} \sum_{n=k}^{15} 2^{n+2}$

The inner sum is a finite geometric series with $15-k+1$ terms, common ratio of 2, and initial term $2^{k+2}$. Therefore,

$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = \displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^{15} \frac{ 2^{k+2} \left(1 - 2^{15-k+1} \right) }{1 - 2}$

$= \displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^{15} \left(2^{18} - 2^{k+2} \right)$

$= \displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^{15} 2^{18} -\sum_{k=1}^{15} 2^{k+2}$

The first sum is merely the sum of a constant. The second sum is another finite geometric series with 15 terms, common ratio of 2, and initial term $2^3$. So

$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = 15 \times 2^{18} - \displaystyle \frac{ 2^3 \left(1 - 2^{15} \right) }{1 - 2}$

$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = 15 \times 2^{18} - \left( 2^{18} - 2^3 \right)$

$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = 14 \times 2^{18} + 2^3$

$\displaystyle \sum_{n=1}^{15} n \cdot 2^{n+2} = 3,670,024$